[*] 308. In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be observed:— [*] a. The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in English:—
- liber quem mihi dedistī, the book you gave me.
- is sum quī semper fuī, I am the same man I always was.
- eō in locō est dē quō tibi locūtus sum, he is in the place I told you of.
- “erat profectus obviam legiōnibus Macedonicīs quattuor, quās sibi conciliāre pecūniā cōgitābat eāsque ad urbem addūcere ” (Fam. 12.23.2) , he had set out to meet four legions from Macedonia, which he thought to win over to himself by a gift of money and to lead (them) to the city.
- lēgēs quae nunc sunt, the existing laws (the laws which now exist).
- Caesar quī Galliam vīcit, Cæsar the conqueror of Gaul.
- “iūsta glōria quī est frūctus virtūtis ” (Pison. 57) , true glory [which is] the fruit of virtue.
- ille quī petit, the plaintiff (he who sues).
- quī legit, a reader (one who reads).
- “ quae pars cīvitātis Helvētiae īnsīgnem calamitātem populō Rōmānō intulerat, ea prīnceps poenās persolvit ” (B. G. 1.12) , the portion of the Helvetian state which had brought a serious disaster on the Roman people was the first to pay the penalty.
[*] Note.--In colloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically belongs in the antecedent clause: as,ille quī cōnsultē cavet, diūtinē ūtī bene licet partum bene (Plaut. Rud. 1240), he who is on his guard, he may long enjoy what he has well obtained.[*] e. The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like the English such:—
- “quae vestra prūdentia est ” (Cael. 45) , such is your wisdom. [Equivalent to prō vestrā prūdentiā .]
- “audīssēs cōmoedōs vel lēctōrem vel lyristēn, vel, quae mea līberālitās, omnēs ” (Plin. Ep. 1.15) , you would have listened to comedians, or a reader, or a lyre-player, or—such is my liberality—to all of them.
- “Caesar statuit exspectandam classem; quae ubi convēnit ” (B. G. 3.14) , Cæsar decided that he must wait for the fleet; and when this had come together, etc.
- quae quī audiēbant, and those who heard this (which things).
- quae cum ita sint, and since this is so.
- “ quōrum quod simile factum ” (Cat. 4.13) , what deed of theirs like this?
- quō cum vēnisset, and when he had come there (whither when he had come).
[*] Note.--This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrogative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstrative, with or without and.[*] g. A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun:—
- “mortuus Cūmīs quō sē contulerat ” (Liv. 2.21) , having died at Cumœ, whither he had retired. [Here in quam urbem might be used, but not in quās.]
- locus quō aditus nōn erat, a place to which (whither) there was no access.
- “rēgna unde genus dūcis ” (Aen. 5.801) , the kingdom from which you derive your race.
- unde petitur, the defendant (he from whom something is demanded).
- idem quod semper, the same as always.
- cum esset tālis quālem tē esse videō; (Mur. 32), since he was such a man as I see you are.
- “tanta dīmicātiō quanta numquam fuit ” (Att. 7.1.2) , such a fight as never was before.
- tot mala quot sīdera (Ov. Tr. 1.5.47), as many troubles as stars in the sky.