[*] 553. Dum and quoad, until, take the Present or Imperfect Subjunctive in temporal clauses implying intention or expectancy:—
- “exspectās fortasse dum dīcat ” (Tusc. 2.17) , you are waiting perhaps for him to say (until he say). [ Dum is especially common after exspectō .]
- “ dum reliquae nāvēs convenīrent, ad hōram nōnam exspectāvit ” (B. G. 4.23) , he waited till the ninth hour for the rest of the ships to join him.
- “comitia dīlāta [sunt] dum lēx ferrētur ” (Att. 4.17.3) , the election was postponed until a law should be passed.
- “an id exspectāmus, quoad nē vestīgium quidem Asiae cīvitātum atque urbium relinquātur ” (Phil. 11.25) , shall we wait for this until not a trace is left of the states and cities of Asia?
- “Epamīnōndās exercēbātur plūrimum luctandō ad eum fīnem quoad stāns complectī posset atque contendere ” (Nep. Epam. 2) , Epaminondas trained himself in wrestling so far as to be able (until he should be able) to grapple standing and fight (in that way).
[*] Note 2.-- Dum, until, may be used with the Present or Future Perfect Indicative to state a future fact when there is no idea of intention or expectancy; but this construction is rare in classic prose. The Future is also found in early Latin. Dōnec, until, is similarly used, in poetry and early Latin, with the Present and Future Perfect Indicative, rarely with the Future:—
- “ego in Arcānō opperior dum ista cōgnōscō ” (Att. 10.3) , I am waiting in the villa at Arcæ until I find this out. [This is really dum, while.]
- “mihi ūsque cūrae erit quid agās, dum quid ēgeris scierō ” (Fam. 12.19.3) , I shall always feel anxious as to what you are doing, until I actually know (shall have known) what you have done.
- “dēlicta mâiōrum luēs dōnec templa refēceris ” (Hor. Od. 3.6.1) , you shall suffer for the sins of your ancestors until you rebuild the temples.
- “ter centum rēgnābitur annōs, dōnec geminam partū dabit Īlia prōlem ” (Aen. 1.272) , sway shall be held for thrice a hundred years, until Ilia shall give birth to twin offspring.