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234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are:—

I. Vowel suffixes:—

  1. o- (M., N.), ā- (F.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declensions: as, sonus , lūdus , vagus , toga (root TEG).
  2. i-, as in ovis , avis; in Latin frequently changed, as in rūpēs, or lost, as inscobs ( scobis , root SCAB).
  3. u-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as insuā-vis (for †suādvis, instead of †suā-dus, cf. ἡδύς), ten-uis (root TEN in tendō ), and remaining alone only in nouns of the fourth declension, as acus (root AK, sharp, in ācer, aciēs , ὠκύς), pecū , genū .
II. Suffixes with a consonant:—

  1. to- (M., N.), - (F.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as tēctus , tēctum; sometimes with an active sense, as in pōtus , prānsus; and found in a few words not recognized as participles, as pūtus (cf. pūrus ), altus ( alō ).
  2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis , vestis , pars , mēns. But in many thei is lost.
  3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as āctus , lūctus .
  4. no- (M., N.), - (F.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, as māgnus , plēnus , rēgnum .
  5. ni-, in nouns of agency and adjectives, as īgnis , sēgnis .
  6. nu-, rare, as in manus , pīnus, cornū .
  7. mo- (-), with various meanings, as inanimus, almus , fīrmus , forma .
  8. vo- (-) (commonly uo-, -), with an active or passive meaning, as in equus ( equos ), arvum , cōnspicuus , exiguus , vacīvus ( vacuus ).
  9. ro- (-), as in ager (stem ( ag-ro- ), integer (cf. intāctus ), sacer , plērī-que (cf. plēnus, plētus).
  10. lo- (-), as in caelum (for † caed-lum ), chisel, exemplum , sella (for † sedla ).
  11. yo- (-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives and abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as eximius , audācia , Flōrentia , perniciēs .
  12. ko- (-), sometimes primary, as in paucī (cf. παῦρος), locus (for stlocus ). In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: as,apex, cortex, loquāx .
  13. en- (on-, ēn-, ōn-), in nouns of agency and abstracts: as, aspergō , compāgē (-ĭnis), gerō (-ōnis).
  14. men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen flūmen , fulmen .
  15. ter- (tor-, tēr-, tōr-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as, pater (i.e. protector), frāter (i.e. supporter), ōrātor.
  16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claustrum (CLAUD), mūlctrum (MULG).
  17. es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus ( generis ), tempus (see § 15. 4). The infinitive in -ere (as in reg-ere ) is a locative of this stem ((--er-e for-es-i).
  18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles: as, legēns , with some adjectives from roots unknown: as, frequēns , recēns .
The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the Latin.

Significant Endings

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