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38. The following are General Rules of Declension:—

a. The Vocative is always the same as the Nominative, except in the singular of nouns and adjectives in -us of the second declension, which have -e in the vocative. It is not included in the paradigms, unless it differs from the nominative.

b. In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always alike, and in the plural end in -ă.

c. The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m; the Accusative plural in -s.

d. In the last three declensions (and in a few cases in the others) the Dative singular ends in -ī.

e. The Dative and Ablative plural are always alike.

f. The Genitive plural always ends in -um.

g. Final -i, -o, -u of inflection are always long; final -a is short, except in the Ablative singular of the first declension; final -e is long in the first and fifth declensions, short in the second and third. Final -is and -us are long in plural cases.

Case-endings of the Five Declensions

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