[*] 298. The main uses of īdem and ipse are as follows:— [*] a. When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or īdem (often with the concessive quidem ) is used to indicate that person or thing:—
- per ūnum servum et eum ex gladiātōriō lūdō; (Att. 1.16.5), by means of a single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial school.
- “vincula, et ea sempiterna ” (Cat. 4.7) , imprisonment, and that perpetual.
- “Ti. Gracchus rēgnum occupāre cōnātus est, vel rēgnāvit is quidem paucōs mēnsīs ” (Lael. 41) , Tiberius Gracchus tried to usurp royal power, or rather he actually reigned a few months.
[*] Note.--So rarely with ille: as,nunc dextrā ingemināns ictūs, “nunc ille sinistrā” (Aen. 5.457) , now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the Homeric ὅ γε: cf. Aen. 5.334; 9.796.][*] b. Idem, the same, is often used where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time):—
- “ōrātiō splendida et grandis et eadem in prīmīs facēta ” (Brut. 273) , an oration, brilliant, able, and very witty too.
- “cum [haec] dīcat, negat īdem esse in Deō grātiam ” (N. D. 1.121) , when he says this, he denies also that there is mercy with God (he, the same man).
[*] Note.--This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun in English.[*] c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis:—
- “turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur ” (Phil. 1.9) , even to me (to me myself) it seemed disgraceful.
- id ipsum, that very thing; quod ipsum, which of itself alone.
- in eum ipsum locum, to that very place.
- “tum ipsum ” (Off. 2.60) , at that very time.
[*] Note 2.--In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself): in Latin the former would be translated by ipse , the latter by sē or sēsē .[*] d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows:—
- As an emphatic pronoun of the third person:—
- “idque reī pūblicae praeclārum, ipsīsglōriōsum ” (Phil. 2.27) , and this was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves.
- omnēs bonī quantum inipsīs fuit (id. 2.29), all good men so far as was in their power (in themselves).
- “dī capitīipsīus generīque reservent ” (Aen. 8.484) , may the gods hold in reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in-law's head.
- To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person:—
- To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons:—