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26. The Stem may be the same as the root: as in duc-is, of a leader, fer-t, he bears; but it is more frequently formed from the root—

  1. By changing or lengthening its vowel: as in scob-s, sawdust (SCAB, shave); rēg-is, of a king (REG, direct); vōc-is, of a voice (VOC, call).
  2. By the addition of a simple suffix (originally another root): as in fugā-, stem of fuga, flight (FUG + ā-); regi-s, you rule (REG + stem-ending e/o-); sini-t, he allows (SI + ne /o-).1
  3. By two or more of these methods: as in dūci-t, he leads (DUC + stemending e/o-).
  4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development peculiar to the language. (See §§ 227 ff.)

1 These suffixes are Indo-European stem-endings.

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