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163. Verbs have regular terminations1 for each of the three Persons, both singular and plural, active and passive.2 These are:

1. -m (-ō): am-ō, I love. -r (-or): amo -r, I am loved.
2. -s: amā -s, thou lovest. -ris (-re): amā -ris, thou art loved.
3. -t: ama -t, he loves. -tur: amā -tur, he is loved.
1. -mus: amā -mus, we love. -mur: amā -mur, we are loved.
2. -tis: amā -tis, you love. -minī: amā -minī, you are loved.
3. -nt: ama -nt, they love. -ntur: ama -ntur, they are loved.

a. The Perfect Indicative active has the special terminations3:—

SING. 1. -ī: amāv-ī, I loved.
2. -is-tī amāv-is-, thou lovedst.
3. -i-t: amāv-i-t, he loved.
PLUR. 1. -i-mus: amāv-i-mus, we loved.
2. -is-tis: amāv-is-tis, you loved.
3. -ērunt (-ēre): amāv-ērunt (-ēre), they loved.

b. The Imperative has the following terminations:—

Singular Plural
2. —: amā, love thou. -te: amā -te, love ye.
2. -: amā-, thou shalt love. -tōte: amā -tōte, ye shall love.
3. -: amā-, he shall love. -ntō: ama -ntō, they shall love.

2. -re: amā -re, be thou loved. -minī: amā -minī, be ye loved.
2. -tor: amā -tor, thou shalt be loved. ---- ----
3. -tor: amā -tor, he shall be loved. -ntor: ama -ntor, they shall be loved.

1 Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is thus added to that of the verb-stem (cf. § 36). But the ending -minī in the second person plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Greek -μενος, and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The personal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns).

2 The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic languages, and of uncertain origin.

3 Of these terminations -ī is not a personal ending, but appears to represent an Indo-European tense-sign -ai of the Perfect Middle. In -is-tī and -is-tis, - and -tis are personal endings; for -is-, see § 169. c. N. In -i-t and -i-mus, -t and -mus are personal endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both -ērunt and -ēre are also of doubtful origin, but the former contains the personal ending -nt.

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