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340. The Vocative is the case of direct address:—
  1. Tiberīne pater, , sāncte, precor (Liv. 2.10) , O father Tiber, thee, holy one, I pray.
  2. rēs omnis mihi tēcum erit, Hortēnsī (Verr. 1.33) , my whole attention will be devoted to you, Hortensius.

a. A noun in the nominative in apposition with the subject of the imperative mood is sometimes used instead of the vocative:—

  1. audī , populus Albānus (Liv. 1.24) , hear, thou people of Alba.

b. The vocative of an adjective is sometimes used in poetry instead of the nominative, where the verb is in the second person:—

  1. quō moritūre ruis (Aen. 10.811) , whither art thou rushing to thy doom?
  2. cēnsōrem trabeāte salūtās (Pers. 3.29) , robed you salute the censor.

c. The vocative macte is used as a predicate in the phrase macte estō ( virtūte ), success attend your (valor):—

  1. iubērem macte virtūte esse (Liv. 2.12) , I should bid you go on and prosper in your valor.
  2. macte novā virtūte puer (Aen. 9.641) , success attend your valor, boy!

Note.--As the original quantity of the final e in macte is not determinable, it may be that the word was an adverb, as in bene est and the like.

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