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253. Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are formed with the suffixes—

-ndus, -bundus, -cundus

a. -ndus (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflexive adjectives:—

secu-ndus, second (the following), favorable; sequī, to follow.
rotu-ndus, round (whirling)1; rotāre, to whirl.

b. -bundus, -cundus, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed by the verb:—

Note.--These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, rubus, red bush; rubidus (but no † rubicus ), ruddy; Rubicōn, Red River (cf. Miniō , a river of Etruria; Minius, a river of Lusitania); rubicundus (as in averruncus, homun-culus). So turba, commotion; turbō, a top; turbidus, roily, etc. Cf. apexabō , longabō , gravēdō , dulcēdō .

vītā-bundus, avoiding; vītāre, to shun.
treme-bundus, trembling; tremere, to tremble.
mori-bundus, dying, at the point of death; morīrī, to die.
-cundus, eloquent; fārī, to speak.
-cundus, fruitful; root , nourish.
īrā-cundus, irascible; cf. īrāscī, to be angry.

c. Here belong also the participial suffixes -minus, -mnus (cf. Greek -μενος), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is still discernible:—2

-mina, woman (the nourisher); root , nourish.
alu-mnus, a foster-child, nursling; alere, to nourish.

Nouns with Adjective Suffixes

1 Cf. “volvendīs mēnsibus(Aen. 1.269) , in the revolving months; cf. “oriundī ab Sabinīs(Liv. 1.17) , sprung from the Sabines, where oriundī = ortī .

2 Cf. § 163. footnote 1.

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  • Commentary references to this page (1):
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.24
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