[*] 397. The Accusative has the following special uses:— [*] a. The accusative is found in a few adverbial phrases (Adverbial Accusative):—
- id temporis, at that time; id (istuc) aetātis, at that age.
- id (quod) genus, of that (what） sort (perhaps originally nominative).
- meam vicem, on my part.
- bonam partem, in a great measure; maximam partem, for the most part.
- virīle (muliebre) secus, of the male (female） sex (probably originally in apposition).
- quod sī, but if (as to which, if); quod nisi, if not.
- “ caput nectentur ” (Aen. 5.309) , their heads shall be bound (they shall be bound about the head).
- ārdentīs oculōs suffectī sanguine et īgnī; (id. 2.210), their glaring eyes bloodshot and blazing with fire (suffused as to their eyes with blood and fire).
- nūda genū (id. 1.320), with her knee bare (bare as to the knee).
- “ femur trāgulā ictus ” (Liv. 21.7.10) , wounded in the thigh by a dart.
[*] Note.--This construction is also called the Accusative of Specification.[*] c. In many apparently similar expressions the accusative may be regarded as the direct object of a verb in the middle voice (§ 156. a):
- “inūtile ferrum cingitur ” (Aen. 2.510) , he girds on the useless steel.
- nodō sinūs collēcta fluentīs (id. 1.320), having her flowing folds gathered in a knot.
- umerōs īnsternor pelle leōnis (id. 2.722), I cover my shoulders with a lion's skin.
- “prōtinus induitur faciem cultumque Diānae ” (Ov. M. 2.425) , forthwith she assumes the shape and garb of Diana.
- ō fortūnātam rem pūblicam, O fortunate republic! [Cf. ō fortūnāta mor<*> (Phil. 14.31), oh, happy death! (§ 339. a).]
- “ō mē īnfēlīcem ” (Mil. 102) , oh, unhappy I!
- mē miserum, ah, wretched me!
- “ēn quattuor ārās ” (Ecl. 5.65) , lo, four altars!
- ellum (=em illum), there he is! [Cf. § 146. a. N.2.]
- eccōs (=ecce eōs), there they are, look at them!
- prō deum fidem, good heavens (O protection of the gods)!
- “hōcine saeclum ” (Ter. Ad. 304) , O this generation!
- “huncine hominem ” (Verr. 5.62) , this man, good heavens!
[*] Note 1.--Such expressions usually depend upon some long-forgotten verb. The substantive is commonly accompanied by an adjective. The use of -ne in some cases suggests an original question, as in quid? what? why? tell me.
[*] Note 2.--The omission of the verb has given rise to some other idiomatic accusatives. Such are:—
- salūtem (sc. dīcit) (in addressing a letter), greeting.
- mē dīus fidius (sc. adiuvet), so help me heaven (the god of faith).
- “unde mihī lapidem ” (Hor. S. 2.7.116) , where can I get a stone?
- “quō mihi fortūnam ” (Hor. Ep. 1.5.12) , of what use to me is fortune? [No verb thought of.]
- “intellegō tē sapere ” (Fam. 7.32.3) , I perceive that you are wise.
- “ eās rēs iactārī nōlēbat ” (B. G. 1.18) , he was unwilling that these matters should be discussed.
[*] Note.--This construction is especially common with verbs of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (§ 580).[*] f. The accusative in later writers is sometimes used in apposition with a clause:—
- “dēserunt tribūnal ... manūs intentantēs, causam discordiae et initium armōrum ” (Tac. Ann. 1.27) , they abandon the tribunal shaking their fists,— a cause of dissension and the beginning of war.
[*] Note.--This construction is an extension (under Greek influence) of a usage more nearly within the ordinary rules, such as,Eumenem prōdidēre Antiochō, “pācis mercēdem” (Sall. Ep. Mith. 8) , they betrayed Eumenes to Antiochus, the price of peace. [Here Eumenes may be regarded as the price, although the real price is the betrayal.]For the Accusative of the End of Motion, see § 427.2; for the Accusative of Duration of Time and Extent of Space, see §§ 423, 425; for the Accusative with Prepositions, see § 220.