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403. The Ablative (usually with a preposition) is used to denote the Source from which anything is derived, or the Material of which it consists:—

    1. Rhēnus oritur ex Lepontiīs(B. G. 4.10) , the Rhine rises in (from) the country of the Lepontii.
    2. ab hīs sermō oritur (Lael. 5) , the conversation is begun by (arises from) them.
    3. cûius ratiōnis vim atque ūtilitātemex illō caelestī Epicūrīvolūmineaccēpimus (N. D. 1.43) , of this reasoning we have learned the power and advantage from that divine book of Epicurus.
    4. suāvitātem odōrum quī afflārentur ē flōribus(Cat. M. 59) , the sweetness of the odors which breathed from the flowers.
    1. erat tōtus ex fraude etmendāciō factus (Clu. 72) , he was entirely made up of fraud and falsehood.
    2. valvās māgnificentiōrēs,ex aurō atqueeboreperfectiōrēs (Verr. 4.124) , more splendid doors, more finely wrought of gold and ivory.
    3. factum cautibus antrum (Ov. M. 1.575) , a cave formed of rocks.
    4. templum marmore pōnam (Georg. 3.13) , I'll build a temple of marble.

    Note 1.--In poetry the preposition is often omitted.

    Note 2.--The Ablative of Material is a development of the Ablative of Source. For the Genitive of Material, see § 344.

a. Participles denoting birth or origin are followed by the Abla tive of Source, generally without a preposition:—1
  1. Iove nātus et Mâiā (N. D. 3.56) , son of Jupiter and Maia.
  2. ēdite rēgibus (Hor. Od. 1.1.1) , descendant of kings.
  3. quō sanguine crētus (Aen. 2.74) , born of what blood.
  4. genitae Pandīone (Ov. M. 6.666) , daughters of Pandion.

Note 1.--A preposition (ab, , ex) is usually expressed with pronouns, with the name of the mother, and often with that of other ancestors:—

    ex hīc nātus nōn est sed ex frātre meō; (Ter. Ad. 40), this is not my son, but my brother's (not born from me, etc.).
  1. cum ex utrāque [uxōre] fīlius nātus esset (De Or. 1.183) , each wife having had a son (when a son had been born of each wife).
  2. Bēlus et omnēs ā Bēlō (Aen. 1.730) , Belus and all his descendants.

Note 2.--Rarely, the place of birth is expressed by the ablative of source: as,— dēsīderāvit C. Flegīnātem Placentiā , A. “Grānium Puteolīs(B. C. 3.71) , he lost Caius Fleginas of Placentia, Aulus Granius of Puteoli.

Note 3.--The Roman tribe is regularly expressed by the ablative alone: as,— Q. “Verrem Rōmiliā(Verr. 1.23) , Quintus Verres of the Romilian tribe.

b. Some verbs may take the Ablative of Material without a preposition. Such are cōnstāre , cōnsistere , and continērī .2 But with cōnstāre , ex is more common:—

  1. domūs amoenitās nōn aedificiō sed silvā cōnstābat (Nep. Att. 13) , the charm of the house consisted not in the buildings but in the woods.
  2. ex animō cōnstāmus et corpore (Fin. 4.19) , we consist of soul and body.
  3. vīta corpore et spīritū continētur (Marc. 28) , life consists of body and spirit.

c. The Ablative of Material without a preposition is used with facere , fierī , and similar words, in the sense of do with, become of:—

  1. quid hōc homine faciātis (Verr. 2.1.42) , what are you going to do with this man?
  2. quid Tulliolā meā fīet (Fam. 14.4.3) , what will become of my dear Tullia ?
  3. quid futūrum est (Verr. 2.155) , what will become of you?

d. The Ablative of Material with ex , and in poetry without a preposition, sometimes depends directly on a noun:—

  1. nōn pauca pōcula ex aurō (Verr. 4.62) , not a few cups of gold.
  2. scopulīs pendentibus antrum (Aen. 1.166) , a cave of hanging rocks.

For Ablative of Source instead of Partitive Genitive, see § 346. c.

Ablative of Cause

1 As nātus, satus, ēditus, genitus, ortus, prōgnātus, generātus, crētus, creātus, oriundus.

2 The ablative with cōnsistere and continērī is probably locative in origin (cf. § 431).

hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references to this page (5):
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 2.33
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 2.4
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 4.12
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 6.18
    • J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., AG Cic. 59
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