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158. The Participles are used as follows:—

a. The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; as, vocāns, calling; legentēs, reading. (For its inflection, see egēns , § 118.)

b. The Future Participle (ending in -ūrus) is oftenest used to express what is likely or about to happen: as, rēctūrus, about to rule; audītūrus, about to hear.

Note.--With the tenses of esse, to be, it forms the First Periphrastic Conjugation (see § 195): as, urbs est cāsūra, the city is about to fall; mānsūrus eram, I was going to stay.

c. The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, -sus) has two uses:—

  1. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle: as, tēctus, sheltered; acceptus, accepted; ictus, having been struck; and often has simply an adjective meaning: as, acceptus, acceptable.
  2. It is used with the verb to be ( esse ) to form certain tenses of the passive: as, vocātus est, he was (has been) called.

    Note.--There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For substitutes see §§ 492, 493.

d. The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses:—

  1. It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or must): as, audiendus est, he must be heard.

    Note.--When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be ( esse ) it forms the Second Periphrastic Conjugation: dēligendus erat, he ought to have been chosen (§ 196).

  2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning as the Gerund (cf. § 159. a), though its construction is different. (For examples, see § 503 ff.)
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  • Commentary references to this page (1):
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 2.2
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