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526. The concessive idea is rather vague and general, and takes a variety of forms, each of which has its distinct history. Sometimes concession is expressed by the Hortatory Subjunctive in a sentence grammatically independent (§ 440), but it is more frequently and more precisely expressed by a dependent clause introduced by a concessive particle. The concessive force lies chiefly in the Conjunctions (which are indefinite or conditional in origin), and is often made clearer by an adversative particle (tamen, certē) in the main clause. As the Subjunctive may be used in independ ent clauses to express a concession, it is also employed in concessive clauses, and somewhat more frequently than the indicative.

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