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263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.

Note.--These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.

    Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scō 1 to the present stem of verbs. They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no simple verb in existence:—
    1. calē-scō, grow warm, from caleō, be warm.
    2. labā-scō, begin to totter, from labō, totter.
    3. scī-scō, determine, from sciō, know.
    4. con-cupī-scō, conceive a desire for, from cupiō, desire.
    5. alē-scō, grow, from alō, feed.
    6. So īrā-scor, get angry; cf. īrā-tus .
    7. iuvenē-scō, grow young; cf. iuvenis, young man.
    8. mītē-scō, grow mild; cf. mītis, mild.
    9. vesperā-scit, it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening.

    Note 2.--Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, calēscō, grow warm, caluī; ārdēscō, blaze forth, ārsī; proficīscor, set out, profectus .

    Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end in- or -itō (rarely -). They denote a forcible or repeatedaction, but this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -itō (not -ātō).
    1. iac-, hurl, from iaciō, throw.
    2. dormī-, be sleepy, from dormiō, sleep.
    3. vol-itō, flit, from volō, fly.
    4. vēndi-, try to sell, from vēndō, sell.
    5. quas-, shatter, from quatiō, shake.
    They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.

    a. Compound suffixes -titō, -sitō, are formed with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other Iteratives; thus, cantitō may come from cantō, iterative of canō, sing.

    b. Another form of Intensives—sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs of practice—ends in -essō (rarely -issō). These denote a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its repetition:—

    1. cap-essō, lay hold on, from capiō, take.
    2. fac-essō, do (with energy), from faciō, do.
    3. pet-esso, pet-issō, seek (eagerly), from petō, seek.

    These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and supine of the fourth:—

    1. arcessō , arcessĕre , arcessīvī , arcessītum, summon.
    2. lacessō , lacessĕre , lacessīvī , lacessītum, provoke.

    Note.--The verbs in -essō, -issō, show the same formation as levāssō, impetrāssere, iūdicāssit, etc. (§ 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained.

    Diminutives end in -illō, and denote a feeble or pettyaction:—
    1. cav-illor, jest, cf. cavilla, raillery.
    2. cant-illō, chirp or warble, from cantō, sing.

    Note 2.--Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.

    Desideratives end in -turiō (-suriō), and express longing or wishing.They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common use:—
    1. par-turiō, be in labor, from pariō, bring forth.
    2. ē-suriō (for † ed-turiō ), be hungry, from edō, eat.
    Others are used by the dramatists.

    Note 3.--Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, ēmpturiō, wish to buy, from ēmptor, buyer. Vīsō, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of a different formation.

1 For -scō in primary formation, see § 176. b. 1.

hide References (3 total)
  • Commentary references to this page (3):
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 2.15
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 4.32
    • J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., AG Cic. 1.2
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