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279. Subordinate Clauses are of various kinds.

a. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb is called a Relative Clause:—

  1. Mosa prōfluit ex monte Vosegō, quī est in fīnibus Lingonum (B. G. 4.10) , the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are on the borders of the Lingones.

For Relative Pronouns (or Relative Adverbs) serving to connect independent sentences, see § 308. f.

b. A clause introduced by an Adverb of Time is called a Temporal Clause:—

  1. cum tacent, clāmant (Cat. 1.21) , while they are silent, they cry aloud.
  2. hominēs aegrī morbō gravī, cum iactantur aestū febrīque, aquam gelidam biberint, prīmō relevārī videntur (id. 1.31), men suffering with a severe sickness, when they are tossing with the heat of fever, if they drink cold water, seem at first to be relieved.

c. A clause containing a Condition, introduced by , if (or some equivalent expression), is called a Conditional Clause. A sentence containing a conditional clause is called a Conditional Sentence.

Thus, aquam gelidam biberint , prīmō relevārī videntur (in b, above) is a Conditional Sentence, and ... biberint is a Conditional Clause.

d. A clause expressing the Purpose of an action is called a Final Clause:—

  1. edō ut vīvam, I eat to live (that I may live).
  2. mīsit lēgātōs quī dīcerent, he sent ambassadors to say (who should say).

e. A clause expressing the Result of an action is called a Consecutive Clause:—1

  1. tam longē aberam ut nōn vidērem, I was too far away to see (so far away that I did not see).

1 Observe that the classes defined in a-e are not mutually exclusive, but that a single clause may belong to several of them at once. Thus a relative clause is usually subordinate, and may be at the same time temporal or conditional: and subordinate clauses may be coördinate with each other

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