[*] 321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs. [*] a. A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see § 308. g):—
- “ eō [ = in ea] impōnit vāsa ” (Iug. 75) , upon them (thither, thereon, on the beasts) he puts the camp-utensils.
- “ eō mīlitēs impōnere ” (B. G. 1.42) , to put soldiers upon them (the horses).
- “apud eōs quō [ = ad quōs] sē contulit ” (Verr. 4.38) , among those to whom (whither) he resorted.
- “quī eum necāsset unde [ = quō] ipse nātus esset ” (Rosc. Am. 71) , one who should have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth).
- “ō condiciōnēs miserās administrandārum prōvinciārum ubi [ = in quibus] sevēritās perīculōsa est ” (Flacc. 87) , O! wretched terms of managing the provinces, where strictness is dangerous.
- “ praeclārē facta ” (Nep. Timoth. 1) , glorious deeds (things gloriously done).
- “multa facētē dicta ” (Off. 1.104) , many witty sayings.
- victor exercitus, the victorious army.
- admodum puer, quite a boy (young).
- magis vir, more of a man (more manly).
- “populum lātē rēgem ” (Aen. 1.21) , a people ruling far and wide.
[*] Note.--Very rarely adverbs are used with nouns which have no adjective force bat which contain a verbal idea:—
- hinc abitiō; (Plaut. Rud. 503), a going away from here.
- “quid cōgitem dē obviarr itiōne ” (Att. 13.50) , what I think about going to meet (him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.]
- fit obviam Clōdiō; (Mil. 29), he falls in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. [Cf. the adjective obvius : as,sī ille obvius eī futūrus nōn erat (id. 47), if he was not likely to fall in with him.]
- “haec commemorō quae sunt palam ” (Pison. 11) , I mention these facts, which are well-known.
- “alia probābilia, contrā alia dīcimus ” (Off. 2.7) , we call some things probable, others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contrā contradicts a previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.]
- “erī semper lēnitās ” (Ter. And. 175) , my master's constant (always) gentleness. [An imitation of a Greek construction.]
[*] Note.--In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in c above).For propius , prīdiē , palam , and other adverbs used as prepositions, see § 432.