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Man, just after his birth, is hard pressed by sleep for several months, after which he becomes more and more wakeful, day by day. The infant dreams1 from the very first, for it will suddenly awake with every symptom of alarm, and while asleep will imitate the action of sucking. There are some persons, however, who never dream; indeed, we find instances stated where it has been a fatal sign for a person to dream, who has never done so before. Here we find ourselves invited by a grand field of investigation, and one that is full of alleged proofs on both sides of the question, whether, when the mind is at rest in sleep, it has any foreknowledge of the future, and if so, by what process this is brought about, or whether this is not altogether a matter quite fortuitous, as most other things are? If we were to attempt to decide the question by instances quoted, we should find as many on the one side as on the other.

It is pretty generally agreed, that dreams, immediately after we have taken wine and food, or when we have just fallen asleep again after waking, have no signification whatever. Indeed, sleep is nothing else than the retiring2 of the mind into itself. It is quite evident that, besides man, horses, dogs, oxen, sheep, and goats have dreams; consequently, the same is supposed to be the case with all animals that are viviparous. As to those which are oviparous, it is a matter of uncertainty, though it is equally certain that they do sleep. But we must now pass on to a description of the insects.

SUMMARY.—Remarkable facts, narratives, and observations, seven hundred and ninety-three.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Manilius,3 Cornelius Valerianus,4 the Acta Triumphorum,5 Umbricius Melior,6 Massurius Sabinus,7 Antistius Labeo,8 Trogus,9 Cremutius,10 M. Varro,11 Macer Æmilius,12 Melissus,13 Mucianus,14 Nepos,15 Fabius Pictor,16 T. Lucretius,17 Cornelius Celsus,18 Horace,19 Deculo,20 Hyginus,21 the Sasernæ,22 Nigidius,23 Mamilius Sura.24

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Homer, Phemonoë,25 Phile- mon,26 Bœus27 who wrote the Ornithogonia, Hylas28 who wrote an augury, Aristotle,29 Theophrastus,30 Callimachus,31 Æschylus,32 King Hiero,33 King Philometor,34 Archytas35 of Tarentum, Amphilochus36 of Athens, Anaxipolis37 of Thasos, Apollodorus38 of Lemnos, Aristophanes39 of Miletus, Antigonus40 of Cymæ, Agathocles41 of Chios, Apollonius42 of Pergamus, Aristander43 of Athens, Bacchius44 of Miletus, Bion45 of Soli, Chæreas46 of Athens, Diodorus47 of Priene, Dion48 of Colophon, Democritus,49 Diophanes50 of Nicæa, Epigenes51 of Rhodes, Euagon52 of Thasos, Euphronius53 of Athens, Juba,54 Androtion55 who wrote on Agriculture, Æschrion56 who wrote on Agriculture, Lysimachus57 who wrote on Agriculture, Dionysius58 who translated Mago, Diophanes59 who made an Epitome of Dionysius, Nicander,60 Onesicritus,61 Phylarchus,62 Hesiod.63


Page vii. line 31, for Coisicius, read Cossicius.

" xvii. " 15, for pepole, read people.

" xviii. " 30, for Fabulosetas, read Fabulositas.

" 378, " 20, for Goat-Pens, read Goat-Pans.

1 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. iv. c. 10, maintains the contrary. But in B. vii. he asserts that infants do dream.

2 See Lucretius, B. iv. 1. 914, et seq.

3 M. Manilius, mentioned in c. 2. Nothing certain is known of him, but by some he is supposed to have been the senator and jurisconsult of that name, contemporary with the younger Scipio. The astronomical poem which goes under his name was probably written at a much later period.

4 See end of B. iii.

5 See end of B. v.

6 A famous soothsayer, who predicted to Galba, as we learn from Tacitus, the dangers to which he was about to be exposed. He wrote on the science of Divination, as practised by the Etruscans.

7 See end of B. vii.

8 A Roman legislator, proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis, and long a favourite of Augustus. According to Aulus Gellius, his works were very numerous. He also wrote a treatise on the Etruscan divination.

9 Trogus Pompeius. See end of B. vii.

10 See end of B. vii.

11 See end of B. ii.

12 See end of B. ix.

13 See end of B. vii.

14 See end of B. ii.

15 See end of B. ii.

16 He was the most ancient writer of Roman history in prose. His history, which was written in Greek, is supposed to have commenced with the arrival of Æneas in Italy, and to have come down to his own time. He was sent by the Romans to consult the oracle at Delphi, after the battle of Cannæ.

17 See end of B. vii.

18 The famous poet and writer on the Epicurean philosophy. He was born B.C. 98, and slew himself B.C. 54.

19 Q. Horatius Flaccus, one of the greatest Roman poets.

20 Nothing is known of this writer; indeed, the correct reading is a matter of doubt.

21 See end of B. iii.

22 Father and son, who wrote treatises on agriculture, as we learn from Columella.

23 See end of B. vi.

24 A writer on agriculture, mentioned by Columella.

25 A priestess of Delphi, said to have been the inventor of hexameter verse. Servius identifies her with the Cumæan Sibyl. Pliny quotes from her in c. 8, probably from some work on augury attributed to her. A work in MS. entitled "Orneosophium," or "Wisdom of Birds," is attributed to Phemonoë. She is said to have been the first to pronounce the celebrated γνῶθι σεαυτὸν, commonly attributed to Thales.

26 An Athenian comic poet of the New Comedy, born either at Soli in Cilicia, or at Syracuse. Plautus has imitated several of his plays.

27 Nothing is known of this writer, who wrote a poem on ornithology, as here stated. Athenæus is doubtful whether the writer was a poet, Bœus, or a poetess, Bœo.

28 Nothing is known of this writer.

29 See end of B. ii.

30 See end of B. iii.

31 See end of B. iv.

32 The Greek tragic poet of Athens, several of whose plays still exist.

33 See end of B. viii.

34 King Attalus III. See end of B. viii.

35 See end of B. viii.

36 See end of B. viii.

37 See end of B. viii.

38 See end of B. viii.

39 See end of B. viii.

40 See end of B. viii.

41 See end of B. viii.

42 See end of B. viii.

43 See end of B. viii.

44 See end of B. viii.

45 See end of B. vi.

46 See end of B. viii.

47 See end of B. viii.

48 See end of B. viii.

49 See end of B. ii.

50 See end of B. viii.

51 See end of B. ii.

52 Of this writer nothing whatever seems to be known.

53 See end of B. viii.

54 See end of B. v.

55 See end of B viii.

56 See end of B. viii.

57 See end of B. viii.

58 Cassius Dionysius of Utica, flourished B.C. 40. He condensed the twenty-eight books of Mago into twenty, and dedicated them to the Roman prætor Sextilius.

59 See end of B. viii.

60 See end of B. viii.

61 See end of B. ii.

62 See end of B. vii.

63 See end of B. vii.

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