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Lichens and leprous spots are removed by applying the fat of the sea-calf,1 ashes of the mæna2 in combination with three oboli of honey, liver of the pastinaca3 boiled in oil, or ashes of the dolphin or hippocampus4 mixed with water. After the parts have been duly excoriated, a cicatrizing treatment ought to be pursued. Some persons bake dolphin's liver in an earthen vessel, till a grease flows therefrom like oil5 in ap- pearance: this they use by way of ointment for these diseases.

Burnt shells of the murex or purple, applied with honey, have a detergent effect upon spots on the face in females: used as an application for seven consecutive days, a fomentation made of white of eggs being substituted on the eighth, they efface wrinkles, and plump out the skin. To the genus " murex" belong the shell-fish known by the Greeks as "coluthia" or "coryphia," equally turbinated, but considerably smaller: for all the above purposes they are still more efficacious, and the use of them tends to preserve the sweetness of the breath. Fish-glue6 effaces wrinkles and plumps out the skin; being boiled for the purpose in water some four hours, and then pounded and kneaded up till it attains a thin consistency, like that of honey. After being thus prepared, it is put by in a new vessel for keeping; and, when wanted for use, is mixed, in the proportion of four drachmæ, with two drachmæ of sulphur, two of alkanet, and eight of litharge; the whole being sprinkled with water and beaten up together. The preparation is then applied to the face, and is washed off at the end of four hours. For the cure of freckles and other affections of the face, calcined bones of cuttle-fish are also used; an application which is equally good for the removal of fleshy excrescences and the dispersion of running sores.

(8.) For the cure of itch-scab, a frog is boiled in five semisextarii of sea-water, the decoction being reduced to the consistency of honey. There is a sea production called "halcyoneum," composed, as some think, of the nests7 of the birds known as the "halcyon"8 and "ceyx," or, according to others, of the concretion of sea-foam, or of some slime of the sea, or a certain lanuginous inflorescence thrown up by it. Of this halcyoneum there are four different kinds; the first, of an ashy colour, of a compact substance, and possessed of a pungent odour; the second, soft, of a milder nature, and with a smell almost iden- tical with that of sea-weed; the third, whiter, and with a variegated surface; the fourth, more like pumice in appearance, and closely resembling rotten sponge. The best of all is that which nearly borders upon a purple hue, and is known as the "Milesian" kind: the whiter it is, the less highly it is esteemed.

The properties of halcyoneum are ulcerative and detergent: when required for use, it is parched and applied without oil. It is quite marvellous how efficiently it removes leprous sores, lichens, and freckles, used in combination with lupines and two oboli of sulphur. It is employed, also, for the removal of marks upon the eyes.9 Andreas10 has recommended for the cure of leprosy ashes of burnt crabs, with oil; and Attalus,11 fresh fat of tunny.

1 Or seal. See B. ix. c. 15.

2 See B. ix. c. 42. Holland calls the mæna the "cackerel."

3 Or sting-ray.

4 See B. ix. c. 1.

5 Much like the cod-liver oil, held in such high repute at the present day.

6 " Icthyocolla." See Chapter 24 of the present Book.

7 Of course this assertion as to the nest of the kingfisher is altogether fabulous, and the sea-productions here described by Pliny were long considered, though destitute of leaves, flowers, and fruit, to belong to the vegetable kingdom. Peyssonnel, however, made the discovery that they belong to the animal kingdom, and that they owe their origin to a species of polyp.

8 Or kingfisher. See B. x. c. 47.

9 " Oculorum cicatrices."

10 See end of B. xx.

11 See end of B. viii.

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