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The more closely columns are placed together, the thicker they appear to be. There are four different kinds of pillars. Those of which the diameter at the foot is one-sixth part of the height, are called Doric. When the diameter is one-ninth, they are Ionic; and when it is one-seventh, Tuscan. The proportions in the Corinthian are the same as those of the Ionic; but they differ in the circumstance that the Corinthian capitals are of the same height as the diameter at the foot, a thing that gives them a more slender appearance; whereas, in the Ionic column, the height of the capital is only one-third of the diameter at the foot. In ancient times the rule was, that the columns should be one-third of the breadth of the temple in height.

It was in the Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, as originally built, that spirals1 were first placed beneath, and capitals added: and it was determined that the diameter of the shafts should be one-eighth of their height, and that the spirals should be one-half of the diameter in height, the upper extremity of the shaft being one-seventh less in diameter than the foot. In addition to these columns, there are what are called "Attic" columns, quadrangular, and with equal sides.

1 It seems difficult to understand whether by the word "spiræ" he means astragals, or bases. It would almost appear, by the use of the word "subditæ," that it is "bases" for the shafts. It is just possible, however, that the meaning may be that the "spire" were placed beneath the capitals which were added.

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load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
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