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1 The grand-daughter of M. Lollius, and heiress to his immense wealth. She was first married to C. Memmius Regulus; but was divorced from him, and married to the Emperor Caligula, who, however, soon divorced her. At the instigation of Agrippina, Claudius first banished her, and then caused her to be murdered. A sepulcher to her honour was erected in the reign of the Emperor Nero.
3 Or rather "betrothal entertainment," "sponsalium cena." The "sponsalia" were not an unusual preliminary of marriage, but were not absolutely necessary.
4 7,600,000 francs, Hardouin says; which would make £304,000 of our money.
5 "Ipsa confestim parata mancupationem tabulis probare."
6 He was proprætor of the province of Galatia, Consul B. C. 21, and B. C. 16 legatus in Gaul; where he suffered a defeat from certain of the German tribes. He was afterwards appointed by Augustus tutor to his grandson, C. Cæsar, whom he accompanied to the East in B. C. 2. He was a personal enemy of Tiberius, which may in some measure account for the had character given him by Velleius Paterculus, who describes him as more eager to make money than to act honourably, and as guilty of every kind of vice. Horace, on the other hand, in the ode addressed to him, Carm. iv. 9, expressly praises him for his freedom from all avarice. His son, M. Lollius, was the father of Lollia Paulina.
7 This does not appear to be asserted by any other author; but Velleius Paterculus almost suggests as much, B. ii., "Cujus mors intra paucos dies fortuita an voluntaria fuerit ignoro." It was said that he was in the habit of selling the good graces of Caius Cæsar to the Eastern sovereigns for sums of money.
8 "Fercula." See vol. i. p. 400, Note 1.
9 "Unam imperii mulierculam accubantem."
10 A fourth of the sum mentioned in Note 55.
12 "Et consumpturam eam cœnam taxationem confirmans."
13 "It was because pearls are calcareous, that Cleopatra was able to dissolve hers in vinegar, and by these means to gain a bet from her lover, as we are told by Pliny, B. ix. c. 58, and Macrobius, Sat. B. ii. c. 13. She must, however, have employed stronger vinegar than that which we use for our tables; as pearls, on account of their hardness and their natural enamel, cannot be easily dissolved by a weak acid. Nature has secured the teeth of animals against the effect of acids, by an enamel covering, which answers the same purpose; but if this enamel happens to be injured only in one small place, the teeth soon spoil and rot. Cleopatra, perhaps, broke and pounded the pearls [pearl]; and it is probable that she afterwards diluted the vinegar with water, that she might be able to drink it; though dissolved calcareous matter neutralizes acids, and renders them imper- ceptible to the tongue. That pearls are not peculiar to one kind of shellfish, as many believe, was known to Pliny." Beckmann's History of In- ventions, vol. i. p. 258, note 1, Bohn's Ed. We may remark, however that as the story is told by Pliny, there is no appearance that Cleopatra pounded the pearl. It is more likely that she threw it into the vinegar, and immediately swallowed it, taking it for granted that it had melted.
14 Macrobius, Saturn. B. iii. says, "Monatius" Plancus. His name was in reality Lucius Munatius Plancus. He afterwards deserted Antony, and took the side of Octavianus; and it was on his proposal that Octavianus received the title of Augustus in B. C. 27. He built the temple of Saturn, in order to secure the emperor's favour. It is not known in what year he died.
15 "Omine rato." He means, that in the result, it was only too true that Antony was "victus," conquered, and that by his enemy Octavianus.
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