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This branch of civilized life has long since been brought to the very highest pitch of perfection, for man has left nothing untried here. Hence it is that we find Virgil1 speaking of grafting the nut-tree on the arbutus, the apple on the plane, and the cherry on the elm. Indeed, there is nothing further in this department that can possibly be devised, and it is a long time since any new variety of fruit has been discovered. Religious scruples, too, will not allow of indiscriminate grafting; thus, for instance, it is not permitted to graft upon the thorn, for it is not easy, by any mode of expiation, to avoid the disastrous effects of lightning; and we are told2 that as many as are the kinds of trees that have been engrafted on the thorn, so many are the thunderbolts that will be hurled against that spot in a single flash.

The form of the pear is turbinated; the later kinds remain on the parent tree till winter, when they ripen with the frost; such, for instance, as the Greek variety, the ampullaceum, and the laureum; the same, too, with apples of the Amerinian and the Scandian kinds. Apples and pears are prepared for keeping just like grapes, and in as many different ways; but, with the exception of plums, they are the only fruit that are stored in casks.3 Apples and pears have certain vinous4 properties, and like wine these drinks are forbidden to invalids by the physicians. These fruits are sometimes boiled up with wine and water, and, so make a preserve5 that is eaten with bread; a preparation which is never made of any other fruit, with the exception of the quinces, known as the "cotoneum" and the "strutheum."

1 Georgics, ii. 69. This statement of Virgil must be regarded as fabu- lous; grafting being impracticable with trees not of the same family, and not always successful even then.

2 This was probably some superstition taught by the augurs for the purpose of enveloping their profession in additional mystery and awe.

3 Cadis.

4 He probably alludes here to cider and perry. See p. 300, and B. xxiii. c. 62.

5 "Pulmentarii vicem;" properly "a substitute for pulmentarium," which was anything eaten with bread, such as meat, vegetables, &c. He alludes to marmalade. The French raisine is a somewhat similar preparation from pears and quinces boiled in new wine.

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