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It is one of the properties of oil to impart warmth to the body, and to protect it against the action of cold; while at the same time it promotes coolness in the head when heated. The Greeks, those parents of all vices, have abused it by mak- ing it minister to luxury, and employing it commonly in the gymnasium: indeed, it is a well-known fact that the gover- nors of those establishments have sold the scrapings1 of the oil used there for a sum of eighty thousand sesterces. The majesty of the Roman sway has conferred high honour upon the olive: crowned with it, the troops of the Equestrian order are wont to defile upon the ides of July;2 it is used, too, by the victor in the minor triumphs of the ovation.3 At Athens, also, they are in the habit of crowning the conqueror with olive; and at Olympia, the Greeks employ the wild olive4 for a similar purpose.

1 It will be stated in B. xxviii. c. 13, to what purposes this abominable collection of filth was applied.

2 15th of July. He alludes to the inspection of the Equites, which originally belonged to the Censors, but afterwards to the Emperors. On this occasion there was "recognitio," or "review," and then a "trans- vectio," or "procession" of the horsemen.

3 The ovation was a lesser triumph, at which the general entered the city not in a chariot, but on foot. In later times, however, the victor en- tered on horseback: and a wreath of myrtle, sometimes laurel, was worn by him. For further particulars as to the ovation, see c. 38 of the present Book.

4 Or "oleaster."

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