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1 "Genere ilicum." It is not improbable that he here refers to the variety of the holm-oak which he has previously called "aquifolia," apparently confounding it with the holly. See c. 8 of this Book.
2 See B. xiii. c. 37.
3 This must be understood of the young leaf of the alder, which has a sort of thick gummy varnish on it.
4 B. xiii. c. 7.
5 B. xv. c. 15. Pliny is not correct here; the leaf of the pear is oval or lanceolated, while that of the apple is oval and somewhat angular, though not exactly "mucronata," or sharply pointed.
6 Not exactly "divided," but strongly lobed.
7 If this is the case, the pitch-tree can hardly be identical with the false fir, the Abies excelsa of Decandolles. See c. 18 of this Book, and the Note.
8 This passage would be apt to mislead, did we not know that the leaves of the coniferous trees here mentioned are not prickly, in the same sense as those of the holly, which are armed with very formidable weapons.
9 More particularly in the Populus tremula, the "quivering" poplar.
11 See B. xv. c. 15. Not a species, but an accidental monstrosity.
12 See B. xv. c. 37, where he speaks of the Hexastich myrtle.
13 The leaves of the elm and the tree supposed to be identical with the cytisus of the ancients have no characteristics in common. See B. xiii. c. 47, and the Notes.
14 De Re Rust. cc. 5, 30, 45.
15 Very inappropriate food for cattle, it would appear: the fig leaf being charged with a corrosive milky juice; the leaf of the holm oak, hard and leathery; and that of the ivy, bitter and nauseous in the highest degree.
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