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1 The Pinus maritima of Linnæus, which produces the greater part of the resins used in France, is found, however, in great abundance in the flat country of the Laudes.
2 On the contrary, the yoke-elm, or horn-beam, grows almost exclusively on the plains; and the same with the cornel and the poplar.
3 The Rhus cotinus of Linnæus, the fustic. See ii. xiii. . 41. This, however, imparts a yellow colour, while Pliny speaks of a purple. It has been asserted, however, that the roots of it produce a fine red. There is no tree in Europe that produces a purple for dyeing.
4 The maple, the ash, and the service-tree, are as often found in the plains as on the hills.
5 See c. 43, and B. xxiv. c. 43. The Cornus sanguinea of Linnæus, the blood-red cornel; the branches of which are red in the winter, and the fruit filled with a blood-red juice. This is probably the same shrub as the male cornel, mentioned further on by Pliny.
6 The Genista tinctoria of Linnæus, or "dyers'" broom.
7 Or "service-tree," the Sorbus domestica of Linnæus. It thrives just as well in a warm locality as a cold one.
8 The Betula alba of Linnæus. It was an object of terror not only in the hands of the Roman lietor, but in those of the pedagogue also and is still to some extent. Hence it was formerly nicknamed "Arbor sapientiæ," the "tree of wisdom."
9 This is no longer done in France, but it is in Russia, where they extract from it an empyreumatic oil, which is used in preparing Russia leather, and which imparts to it its agreeable smell.
10 Boys, both of whose parents were surviving, used to carry before the bride a torch of white thorn. This thorn was, not improbably, the "Cratægus oxyacantha" of Linnæus, which bears a white flower. See B. xxiv. c. 66.
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