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It is said, too, that Pamphilus,1 the instructor of Apelles, not only painted in encaustic, but also instructed Pausias2 of Sicyon in the art, the first who rendered himself distinguished in this branch. Pausias was the son of Bryetes, by whom he was originally instructed in the art of painting. He retouched also with the pencil3 some walls at Thespiæ, then undergoing repair, which had formerly been painted by Polygnotus. Upon instituting a comparison, however, it was considered that he was greatly inferior, this kind of painting not being in his line. It was he, too, who first thought of painting ceilings; nor had it been the practice before his day to use this kind of decoration for arched roofs. He painted many small pictures also, miniatures of children more particularly; a thing which, according to the interpretation put upon it by his rivals, was owing to the peculiarly slow process of encaustic painting. The consequence was, that being determined to give a memorable proof of his celerity of execution, he completed a picture in the space of a single day, which was thence called the "Hemeresios,"4 representing the portrait of a child.

In his youth, he was enamoured of Glycera,5 his fellow-townswoman, the first inventor of chaplets; and in his rivalry of the skill shown by her, he achieved so much success in the encaustic art, as to reproduce the almost numberless tints displayed by flowers. At a later period, he painted her, seated, with a chaplet on, and thus produced one of the very finest of his pictures; known as the "Stephaneplocos"6 by some, and as the "Stephanopolis"7 by others; from the circumstance that Glycera had supported herself in her poverty by selling these chaplets. A copy of this picture, usually known as an "apographon,"8 was purchased by L. Lucullus at Athens, during the festival of the Dionysia, at the price of two talents.

Pausias also painted some large pictures, a Sacrifice of Oxen, for instance, which used to be seen in the Portico of Pom- peius. In this painting he invented several improvements, which many artists have since imitated, but none with the same success. Although in the picture it was particularly his desire to give an impression of the length of the ox, he painted it with a front view and not sideways, and still has caused the large dimensions of the animal to be fully understood. And then too, whereas all other painters colour in white such parts as they wish to have the appearance of being prominent, and in black such portions as are intended to remain in the back-ground, he has painted the whole of the ox of a black colour, and has shown the dimensions of the body which throws the shadow by the medium of the shadow itself; thus evincing a wonderful degree of skill in showing relief upon a coat painted with a single colour, and conveying an impression of uniform solidity upon a broken ground.9 It was at Sicyon also that Pausias passed his life, a city which for a long time continued to be the native place of painting. Ultimately, all the paintings belonging to that place were sold by public auction for the discharge of the debts owing by the city, and were transferred to Rome in the ædileship of Scaurus.10

Next to him, in the hundred and fourth Olympiad, Euphranor,11 the Isthmian, distinguished himself far beyond all others, an artist who has been already mentioned in our account of the statuaries. He executed some colossal figures also, and some statues in marble, and he chased some drinking-vessels; being studious and laborious in the highest degree, excellent in every branch, and at all times equal to himself. This artist seems to have been the first to represent heroes with becoming dignity, and to have paid particular attention to symmetry. Still, however, in the generality of instances, he has made the body slight in proportion to the head and limbs. He composed some treatises also upon symmetry and colours. His works are, an Equestrian Combat;12 the Twelve Gods; and a Theseus; with reference to which he remarked that the Theseus of Parrhasius had been fed upon roses, but his own upon beef.13 There are also at Ephesus some famous pictures by him; an Ulysses, in his feigned madness, yoking together an ox and a horse; Men, in an attitude of meditation, wearing the pallium;14 and a Warrior, sheathing his sword.

At the same time, also, flourished Cydias;15 for whose picture of the Argonautæ the orator Hortensius paid one hundred and forty-four thousand sesterces, and had a shrine constructed expressly for its reception on his estate at Tusculum.16 There was also Antidotus, a pupil of Euphranor, by whom there is, at Athens, a Combatant armed with a shield; a Wrestler, also; and a Trumpeter, a work which has been considered a most exquisite production.

Antidotus, as a painter, was more careful in his works than prolific, and his colouring was of a severe style. His principal glory was his having been the instructor of Nicias17 of Athens; who was a most careful painter of female portraits, and a strict observer of light and shade,18 making it his especial care that the figures in his pictures should appear in the boldest relief. His works are, a Nemea, which was brought from Asia to Rome by Silanus, and was placed in the Curia, as already stated;19 a Father Liber,20 in the Temple21 of Concord; a Hyacinthus,22 which the Emperor Augustus was so delighted with, that he took it away with him after the capture of Alexandria; for which reason also it was consecrated in the Temple23 of Augustus by the Emperor Tiberius; and a Danaë. At Ephesus, there is a tomb by him of a megabyzus,24 or priest of the Ephesian Diana; and at Athens a representation of the Necyomantea25 of Homer; which last he declined to sell to King Attalus for sixty talents, and in preference, so rich was he, made a present of it to his own native place. He also executed some large pictures, among which there are a Calypso, an Io, an Andromeda, a very fine Alexander, in the Porticos26 of Pompeius, and a Calypso, seated. To this painter also there are some pictures of cattle attributed, and in his dogs he has been remarkably successful. It was this Nicias, with reference to whom, Praxiteles, when asked with which of all his works in marble he was the best pleased, made answer, "Those to which Nicias has set his hand," so highly did he esteem the colouring of that artist. It has not been satisfactorily ascertained whether it is this artist or another of the same name that some writers have placed in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad.

With Nicias has been compared, and indeed sometimes preferred to him, Athenion of Maronea,27 a pupil of Glaucion of Corinth. In his colouring he is more sombre than Nicias, and yet, with all his sombreness, more pleasing; so much so indeed, that in his paintings shines forth the extensive knowledge which he possessed of the art. He painted, in the Temple at Eleusis, a Phylarchus;28 and at Athens, a family group, which has been known as the "Syngenicon;"29 an Achilles also, concealed in a female dress, and Ulysses detecting him; a group of six whole-length figures, in one picture; and, a work which has contributed to his fame more than any other, a Groom leading a Horse. Indeed, if he had not died young, there would have been no one comparable to Athenion in painting.

Heraclides, too, of Macedon, had some repute as an artist. At first he was a painter of ships, but afterwards, on the capture of King Perseus, he removed to Athens; where at the same period was also Metrodorus,30 who was both a painter and a philosopher, and of considerable celebrity in both branches. Hence it was, that when L. Paulus Æmilius, after the conquest of Perseus,31 requested the Athenians to send him the most esteemed philosopher for the education of his children, and a painter to represent his triumph, they made choice of Metrodorus, declaring that he was eminently suited for either purpose; a thing which Paulus admitted to be the case.

Timomachus of Byzantium, in the time of the Dictator Cæsar, painted an Ajax32 and a Medea, which were placed by Cæsar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, having been purchased at the price of eighty talents; the value of the Attic talent being, according to M. Varro, equivalent to six thousand denarii. An Orestes, also by Timomachus, an Iphigenia in Tauris, and a Lecythion, a teacher of gymnastics, are equally praised; a Noble Family also; and Two Men clothed in the pallium,33 and about to enter into conversation, the one standing, the other in a sitting posture. It is in his picture, however of the Gorgon,34 that the art appears to have favoured him most highly.

Aristolaüs, the son and pupil of Pausias, was one of the painters in a more severe style: there are by him an Epaminondas, a Pericles, a Medea, a Theseus, an emblematical picture of the Athenian People, and a Sacrifice of Oxen. Some persons, too, are pleased with the careful style of Nicophanes,35 who was also a pupil of Pausias; a carefulness, however, which only artists can appreciate, as in other respects he was harsh in his colours, and too lavish of sil;36 as in his picture, for example, of Æsculapius with his daughters, Hygia,37 Ægle, and Panacea, his Jason, and his Sluggard, known as the "Ocnos,"38 a man twisting a rope at one end as an ass gnaws it at the other. As to Socrates,39 his pictures are, with good reason, universally esteemed.

Having now mentioned the principal painters in either branch,40 I must not pass in silence those who occupy the next rank. Aristoclides decorated the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Antiphilus41 is highly praised for his picture of a Boy blowing a Fire, which illumines an apartment handsomely furnished, and throws a light42 upon the features of the youth; a Spinning-room, with women plying their respective tasks; and a King Ptolemæus hunting. But his most famous picture is his Satyr, clad in a panther's skin, and known as the "Aposcopeuon."43 Aristophon44 has painted an Ancæus45 wounded by the Boar, with Astypale, the sharer of his grief; and a picture with numerous figures, representing Priam, Helena, Credulity, Ulysses, Dphobus, and Guile.46 Androbius has painted a Scyllus47 cutting away the anchors of the Persian fleet: and Artemon a Danaë, with Robbers in admiration; a Queen Stratonice;48 and a Hercules and Deianira. But the finest of all this artist's works are those now in the buildings of Octavia; a Hercules ascending to heaven, with the sanction of the gods, from his funeral pile upon Mount Œta in Doris; and the story of Laomedon and his bargain49 with Hercules and Neptune. Alcimachus has painted Dioxippus,50 who was victorious in the pancratium at Olympia, without raising the dust; a victory known to the Greeks as being gained "aconiti."51 Cœnus painted pedigrees.52

Ctesilochus, a pupil53 of Apelles, was famous for a burlesque picture of his representing Jupiter in labour with Bacchus,54 with a mitra55 on his head, and crying like a woman in the midst of the goddesses, who are acting as midwives. Cleon distinguished himself by his Cadmus; and Ctesidemus, by his Capture of Œchalia56 and his Laodamia.

Ctesicles became notorious for the insult which he offered to Queen Stratonice;57 for, upon failing to meet with an honourable reception from her, he painted her, romping with a fisherman, for whom, according to common report, she had conceived an ardent affection. After exhibiting this picture in the harbour at Ephesus, he at once set sail and escaped: the queen, however, would not allow of its removal, the likenesses of the two figures being so admirably expressed. Cratinus,58 the comic writer, painted at Athens, in the Pompeion59 there.

Of Eutychides, there is a Victory guiding a chariot drawn by two horses. Eudorus is famous for his dramatic scenery; he executed some statues in bronze also. By Hippys there is a Neptune and Victory. Habron painted a picture of Friendship and Concord, and several figures of divinities; Leontiscus, an Aratus with the trophies of victory,60 and a Singing-girl; Leon, a portrait of Sappho; and Nearchus, a Venus attended by Cupids and Graces, and a Hercules, sorrowing and repentant at the sad results of his madness.61 Nealces,62 a remarkably ingenious and inventive artist, painted a Venus. On one occasion, when he had to represent a naval engagement between the Persians and Egyptians, wishing it to be understood that it took place on the river Nilus, the waters of which are similar in appearance to those of the sea, he employed an emblem to disclose that which would not admit of expression by art; for he painted an ass drinking on the shore, and a crocodile lying in wait for him.63

Œnias has painted a Family Group; Philiscus, a Painter's Studio, with a boy blowing the fire; Phalerion, a Scylla; Simonides, an Agatharchus and a Mnemosyne; Simus, a youth reposing, a Fuller's Shop, a person celebrating the Quinquatria,64 and a Nemesis of great merit. By Theorus65 there is a Man Anointing himself; a picture of the Murder of Ægisthus and Clytæmnestra by Orestes; and a representation of the Trojan War, in a series of paintings, now at Rome, in the Porticos66 of Philippus: a Cassandra67 also, in the Temple of Concord; a Leontium, the mistress of Epicurus, in an attitude of meditation; and a King Demetrius.68 Theon69 has painted the Frenzy70 of Orestes, and a Thamyras71 playing on the lyre; Tauriscus, a Discobolus,72 a Clytæmnestra, a Pan in miniature, a Polynices claiming73 the sovereignty, and a Capaneus.74

In speaking of these artists, I must not omit to mention one memorable circumstance: Erigonus, who was colour-grinder to the painter Nealces, himself made such progress in the art as to leave a very celebrated pupil, Pasias, the brother of Ægineta, the modeller. It is also a very singular fact, and one well deserving of remark, that the last works of these artists, their unfinished paintings, in fact, are held in greater admiration than their completed works; the Iris of Aristides, for instance, the Tyndaridæ75 of Nicomachus, the Medea of Timomachus,76 and the Venus of Apelles,77 already mentioned. For in such works as these, we not only see the outline depicted, and the very thoughts of the artist expressed, but have the composition additionally commended to our notice by the regrets which we must necessarily feel on finding the hand that commenced it arrested by death.

There are still some other artists, who, though by no means without reputation, can only be noticed here in a summary manner: Aristocydes; Anaxander; Aristobulus of Syria; Arcesilas,78 son of Tisicrates; Corœbos, a pupil of Nicomachus; Charmantides, a pupil of Euphranor; Dionysodorus of Colophon; Dicæogenes, a contemporary of King Demetrius;79 Euthymides; Heraclides80 of Macedon; Milo of Soli, a pupil of the statuary Pyromachus; Mnasitheus of Sicyon; Mnasitimus, the son and pupil of Aristonidas;81 Nessus, son of Habron;82 Polemon of Alexandria; Theodorus of Samos, and Stadieus, pupils of Nicosthenes; and Xeno of Sicyon, a pupil of Neocles.

There have been some female painters also. Timarete, the daughter of Micon,83 painted a Diana at Ephesus, one of the very oldest panel-paintings known. Irene, daughter and pupil of the artist Cratinus,84 painted a figure of a girl, now at Eleusis, a Calypso, an Aged Man, the juggler Theodorus, and Alcisthenes the dancer. Aristarete, daughter and pupil of Nearchus, painted an Æsculapius. Iaia of Cyzicus, who always remained single, painted at Rome, in the youth of M. Varro, both with the brush, and with the graver,85 upon ivory, her subjects being female portraits mostly. At Naples, there is a large picture by her, the portrait of an Old Woman; as also a portrait of herself, taken by the aid of a mirror. There was no painter superior to her for expedition; while at the same time her artistic skill was such, that her works sold at much higher prices than those of the most celebrated portrait-painters of her day, Sopolis namely, and Dionysius,86 with whose pictures our galleries are filled. One Olympias painted also, but nothing is known relative to her, except that she had Autobulus for a pupil.

1 See Chapter 36 of this Book.

2 Two paintings of his at Epidaurus are mentioned by Pausanias, B. ii. c. 27.

3 And not in encaustic; though, as we shall see in Chapter 41, the brush was sometimes used in this branch.

4 The "One day" picture.

5 See B. xxi. c. 3.

6 The "Chaplet-wearer." See B. xxi. c. 3.

7 The "Chaplet-seller."

8 A "correct" copy.

9 "In confracto." Meaning probably the group of the surrounding spectators, on which the shadow of the animal's body was thrown. "It is evident that this artist excelled in his effect of light and shade, enhanced by contrasts, and strong foreshortenings."—Wornum, Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

10 A.U.C. 678. See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

11 Mentioned also in B. xxxiv. c. 19.

12 Praised by Pausanias, B. i. It was in this combat, he says, that Gryllus, the son of Xenophon, and Epaminondas the Theban, first distinguished themselves.

13 "Carne." Beef, according to Plutarch, was the flesh mentioned.

14 The dress of the Greek philosophers, more particularly.

15 Born in the island of Cythnos, one of the Cyclades. He is supposed to be the artist mentioned by Theophrastus, De Lapid. c. 95.

16 It is supposed by Sillig, from Dio Cassius, B. liii. c. 27, that this painting was transferred by M. Vipsanius Agrippa, to the Portico of Neptune.

17 See Chapter 20 of this Book, where he is mentioned as having been the first artist who used "usta" or burnt ceruse. From Pausanias we learn that his remains were interred at Athens, in the road leading to the Academia.

18 Chiaroscuro.

19 In Chapter 10 of this Book.

20 Bacchus.

21 In the Eighth Region of the City.

22 Spoken of by Pausanias, B. iii. c. 19.

23 In the Forum at Rome.

24 See Chapter 36 of this Book, Note 73, p. 261.

25 "Place of the prophecies of the dead;" in reference to the description of the Infernal Regions in the Fourth Book of the Odyssey.

26 See Chapter 37 of this Book.

27 See B. iv. c. 18.

28 Supposed by Hardouin to be the writer mentioned at the end of B. vii. and B. x.: or perhaps, "a chief" of an Athenian tribe.

29 A "group of kindred."

30 A disciple of Carneades. See the list of writers at the end of this Book.

31 B.C. 168.

32 Represented in a sitting posture, as mentioned by Ovid, Trist. II. 525, and by Philostratus, Vit. Apol. B. II. c. 10. The Medea is described in an Epigram in B. iv. of the Greek Anthology, imitated by Ausonius, Epigr, 22.

33 See Note 65 above.

34 Medusa, slain by Perseus.

35 In the former editions, "Mecophanes."

36 Or ochre. See B. xxxiii. c. 56.

37 Health, Brightness, and All-heal.

38 Greek for "sluggard."

39 Probably, from the context, a pupil, also, of Pausias.

40 In pencil painting, and in encaustic.

41 Probably the same painter that is mentioned in Chapter 37.

42 An effect for which Schalken is famous.

43 "Shading his eyes."

44 Son and pupil of Aglaopho, and brother of Polygnotus. He was probably a native of Thasos.

45 See Chapter 36, Note 77, page 261.

46 "Dolus." An emblematical picture evidently, probably representing the events just prior to the capture of Troy.

47 A famous diver, mentioned by Herodotus, B. viii. c. 8, Pausanias, B. x. c. 19, and Strabo, B. ix.

48 Probably the wife of Seleucus, given by him to his son Antiochus. See B. vii. c. 37, Note 38.

49 That they should rebuild the walls of Troy.

50 His contest with Corragus the Macedonian, whom he defeated, is mentioned also by Ælian, Diodorus Siculus, Athenæus, and Quintus Curtius.

51 Gained "without raising the dust," i. e. without any difficulty.

52 This is perhaps the meaning of "stemmata;" "heraldic pictures," probably. See Juvenal, Sat. viii. l. 2.

53 Suidas seems to mention him, under the name of "Ctesiochus," as the brother of Apelles.

54 Who was said to have been born from the thigh of Jove.

55 Or cap; see Chapter 35 of this Book.

56 By Hercules, when he demanded Iole of her father Eurytus, king of Œchalia.

57 See Note 94 above.

58 Several Cratini were distinguished as Comic writers, but we do not read in any other author of any one of them being a painter. The reading is doubtful.

59 A building at the entrance into Athens, whence the "pompæ," or solemn processions, set out.

60 Hardouin thinks that this was the victory gained by Aratus of Sicyon over Aristippus, the Tyrant of Argos. If so, Leontiscus must have flourished about Olymp. 136.

61 Caused by the anger of Juno. In this fit of insanity he slew his wife Megara and her children.

62 See also Chapter 36. From Plutarch we learn that he was greatly in favour with Aratus of Sicyon.

63 According to Brotero, a representation of the Ass and Crocodile was found in the pictorial embellishments at Herculaneum.

64 See B. xvii. c. 36, B. xviii. c. 56, and B. xix. c. 24.

65 "Theodorus" in most of the editions.

66 See Chapter 36 of this Book, page 252.

67 See the Æneid, B. II. c. 403, et seq.

68 Poliorcetes.

69 A native of Samos, mentioned by Quintilian, B. xii. c. 10, as one of the painters between the time of Philip and that of the successors of Alexander.

70 After the murder of his mother.

71 See B. vii. c. 57.

72 Or player with the discus.

73 Against his brother Eteocles.

74 Who assisted Polynices in his siege of Thebes.

75 Helen, Castor, and Pollux.

76 See B. vii. c. 37.

77 Mentioned in Chapter 36, as having been commenced for the people of Cos, but never finished.

78 See B. xxxiv. cc. 19, 39. Sillig is of opinion that the picture mentioned by Pausanias, B. I. c. 1, in honour of Leosthenes, killed in the Lamian War, B.C. 323, was by this artist.

79 Poliorcetes, who began to reign B.C. 306.

80 Already mentioned in this Chapter, at greater length.

81 See B. xxxiv. c. 40.

82 See Chapter 36 of this Book, and the present Chapter. Of the greater part of these artists nothing further is known.

83 See Chapter 35 of this Book.

84 Previously mentioned in this Chapter.

85 Or stylus—"cestrum."

86 Probably the same painter as the one mentioned in Chapter 37 of this Book.

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