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1 When the volcanos are less active the flame is visible in the night only.
2 The observations of modern travellers and geologists have proved, that the number of extinct volcanos is considerably greater than those now in action.
3 Chimæra was a volcano in Lycia, not far from the Xanthus; the circumstance of its summit emitting flame, while its sides were the resort of various savage animals, probably gave rise to the fabulous story of the Centaur of this name, a ferocious monster who was continually vomiting forth flame.
4 The word in the text is "fœnum"; Hardouin suggests that the meaning of the author may have been litter, or the refuse of stables. Lemaire, i. 454.
5 The emission of a gas, which may be kindled by the application of flame, is a phenomenon of no very rare occurrence; but the effects are, no doubt, much exaggerated. See the remarks of Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 454.
6 The country of the Bactrians was a district to the S.E. of the Caspian Sea, and to the north of the sources of the Indus, nearly corresponding to the modern Bucharia.
7 There would appear to be some uncertainty as to the locality of this place: our author derived his statement from the writer of the treatise de Mirab. Auscult.
9 Probably the crater of a former volcano.
10 This mountain, as well as the θεῶν ὄχημα, mentioned below, has been supposed to be situated on the west of Africa, near Sierra Leone, or Cape Verd; but, as I conceive, without sufficient authority. See Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 455.
11 "Internus." "In interiore nemore abditus." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 455.
12 If this account be not altogether fabulous, the appearance here described may be, perhaps, referred to the combustion of an inflammable gas which does not acquire a very high temperature.
13 We have an account of this place in Strabo, vii. 310. Our author has already referred to it in the 96th chapter of this book, as a pool or lake, containing floating islands; and he again speaks of it in the next chapter.
14 We have an account of this volcano in Ælian, Var. Hist. xiii. 16. It would appear, however, that it had ceased to emit flame previous to the calamitous events of which it was supposed to be the harbinger.
15 This circumstance is mentioned by Dion Cassius, xli. 174. We may conceive that a sudden influx of water might force up an unusually large quantity of the bitumen.
16 We have a full account of this circumstance in Strabo, vi. 277.
17 "Currum deorum Latine licet interpretari." Hardouin in Lemaire, i. 456.
18 "torrentesque solis ardoribus flammas egerit;" perhaps the author may mean, that the fires of the volcano assist those of the sun in parch- ing the surface of the ground.
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