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1 "Granis." What the ancients took to be a vegetable substance, is now known to be an insect, the kermes of the Quercus coccifera.
2 See B. ix. c. 63.
3 "Paludamentis." The "paliudamentum" was the cloak worn by a Roman general when in command, his principal officers, and personal attendants. It was open in front, reached to the knees or thereabout, and hung over the shoulders, being fastened across the chest by a clasp. It was commonly white or purple.
4 For an account of all these colours see B. ix. cc. 60–65.
5 The vaccinium for instance. See B. xvi. c. 31.
6 Fée thinks that
7 Fée thinks that the art of dyeing with alkanet and madder may be here alluded to. 11 See B. xxxv. c. 1.
8 The "good," "ingenuous," or "liberal" arts were those which might be practised by free men without loss of dignity. Pliny is somewhat inconsistent here, for he makes no scruple at enlarging upon the art of medicine, which among the Romans was properly not a liberal, but a servile, art.
9 "Surdisart of dyeing with alkanet and madder may be her alluded too."
10 Festus says the "verbenæ," or pure herbs, were called "sagmina," because they were taken from a sacred (sacer) place. It is more generally supposed that "sagmen" comes from "sanction," "to render inviolable," the person of the bearer being looked upon as inviolable.
12 Or bearer of the "verbena." See further on this subject in B. xxv. c. 59.
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