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1 This deity was also called Sangus, or Semo Sancus; and Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. c. 216, et seq., gives us much information concerning him. He was of Sabine origin, and identical with Hercules and Dius Fidius. If we may judge from the derivation of the name, it is not improbable that he presided over the sanctity of oaths. His temple at Rome was on the Quirinal, opposite to that of Quirinus, and near the gate which from him derived the name of "Sanqualis porta." He was said to have been the father of the Sabine hero Sabus.
2 According to the commonly received account, Tanaquil was the wife of Tarquinius Priscus, and a native of Etruria; when she removed to Rome, and her husband became king, her name was changed to Caia Cæcilia.—B.
3 "Undulata;" it has been suggested that this means the same as our stuffs which we term "watered."—B.
4 "Tunica recta;" according to Festus, it was "so called from being woven perpendicularly by people standing."—B. It probably means woven from top to bottom and cross-wise in straight lines.
5 Toga pura;" so called from being white, without a mixture of any other colour.
6 "Sororiculata;" there is much uncertainty respecting the derivation of this word and its meaning, but it is generally supposed to signify some kind of stuff, composed of a mixture of different ingredients or of different colours.—B. "Orbiculata," "with round spots," is one reading, and probably the correct one.
7 According to Hardouin, these were cloths which imitated the crisp and prominent hair of the Phryxian fleece, Lemaire, vol. iii. p. 529. Some editions read "Phrygianas."
8 "Papaverata;" there is considerable difficulty in ascertaining the meaning of this word, as applied to garments. Pliny, in two other passages, speaks of a certain species of poppy—"from this, linens receive a peculiar whiteness," B. xix. "From this, linens receive a brilliant whiteness in time," B. xx. c. 78. It would appear, in these cases, that the fibres of the stem of the poppy were mixed with the flax; though, perhaps, this would be scarcely practicable with wool.—B.
9 The prætexta is described by Varro as a white toga, with a purple band; it was worn by males, until their seventeenth year, and by young women until their marriage.—B.
10 The trabea differed from the prætexta, in being ornamented with stripes (trabes) of purple, whence its name.—B.
11 Helen is introduced, Il. B. iii. 1. 125, weaving an embroidered garz ment, in which were figured the battles of the Greeks and Trojans. It was probably somewhat of the nature of modern tapestry.—B.
12 See B. ix. c. 60.
13 This passage, in which the needle is said to have been used, proves that when the word I "pictæ" is applied to garments, it is equivalent to our term "embroidered."—B.
14 Pliny refers to the "Attalica tunica," B. xxxiii. c. 29, and to the "Attalica vestis," B. xxxvi. c. 20, and B. xxxvii. c. 6; Propertius speaks of "Attalica aulæa," B. ii. c. 32, 1. 12, "Attalicas torus," B. ii. c. 13, 122, and B. iv. c. 5, 1. 24, and "Attalicæ vestes," B. iii. c. 18, 1. 19.—B.
15 Plautus, Stich. A. ii. s. 2, 1. 54, speaks of "Babylonica peristromata, consuta tapetia," "Babylonian hangings, and embroidered tapestry;" and Martial, B. viii. Ep. 28, 1. 17, 18, of "Babylonica texta," "Babylonian textures."—B.
16 From Martial's epigram, entitled "Cubicularia polymita," B. xiv. Ep. 150, we may conclude that the Egyptian polymita were formed in a loom, and of the nature of tapestry, while the Babylonian were embroidered with the needle. Plautus probably refers to the Egyptian tapestry, in the Pseud. A. i. s. 2, 1. 14, "Neque Alexandrina belluata conchyliata tapetia" —"Nor yet the Alexandrine tapestries, figured over with beasts and shells."
17 "Scutulis divider." This term may mean "squares," "diamonds," or "lozenges," something like the segments into which a spider's web is divided. It is not improbable that he alludes here to the plaids of the Gallic nations.
18 We have an account of this contention in Plutarch, and we may presume that this accusation was produced at that time.—B.
19 The first sum amounts to about £4,600 sterling, the latter to £23,000.—B.
20 The following lines in Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 509, et seq., have been
supposed to refer to this temple, and prove that the account of it is correct.
"Lux eadem, Fortuna, tuaque est, auctorque, locusque.
"Sed superinjectis quis latet æde togis?
"Servius est ..."
"The same day is thine, O Fortune; the same the builder, the same the site. But who is this that lies hid beneath the garments covering him? It is Servius."
21 Perhaps "changed their colour" may be a better translation of "do— fluxisse."
22 "Sesquipedalibus libris." It seems impossible to translate this literally. Hardouin explains it by supposing that the fleeces were dyed in strips of three colours, each strip being half a foot in breadth, and that three of these required a pound of the dyeing materials.—B.
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