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1 He alludes to the wild rose or eglantine. See B. xvi. c. 71.
2 "Granoso cortice."
3 Boxes of a pyramidal shape. See B. ix. c. 56.
4 Still, even for that purpose the rose was very extensively used. One ancient author states that, even in the middle of winter, the more luxurious Romans were not satisfied without roses swimming in their Falernian wine; and we find Horace repeatedly alluding to the chaplets of roses worn by the guests at banquets. Hence probably arose the expression, "Under the rose." Fée is evidently mistaken in thinking that Pliny implies here, that it was but rarely used in chaplets.
5 I. xxiii. 1. 186.
6 B. xiii. c. 2.
8 Clusius was of opinion that this was the Provence rose, the Rosa Gallica of Linnæus.
9 The same rose, probably, of which Virgil says, Georg. B. iv. l. 119, "Biferique rosaria Pæsti"—"And the rose-beds of Pæstum, that bear twice in the year." It has been suggested that it is identical with the Rosa alba vulgaris major of Bauhin, the Rosa alba of Decandolle: but, as Fée says, it is very questionable if this is correct, this white rose blossoming but once a year.
10 A simple variety of the Rosa Gallica of Linnæus, Fée thinks.
11 See B. iv. c. 14. According to J. Bauhin, this is the pale, flesh-coloured rose, called the "rose of France,"—the "Rosa rubello flore, majore, pleno, incarnata vulgo." Others, again, take it to be the Damascus rose.
12 See B. v. c. 29. A variety of the white rose, Fée thinks, the determination of which must be sought among the Eglantines.
13 "Spiniola." A variety belonging to or approaching the Eglantine in all probability. Fée makes mention here of a kind called the Rosa myriacantha by Decandolle (the "thousand-thorn rose"), which is found in great abundance in the south of Europe, and other parts of it.
14 Fée remarks on this passage, that the beauty of the flower and the number of the petals are always in an inverse proportion to the number of thorns, which disappear successively the more carefully the plant is cultivated.
15 This is most probably the meaning of "Asperitate, levore."
16 Still known as the "Rosa centifolia." Its petals sometimes exceed three hundred in number; and it is the most esteemed of all for its fragrant smell.
17 "Non suæ terræ proventu."
18 This rose is mentioned also by Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. B. vi. c. 6. From the description that Pliny gives of it, Fée is inclined to think that it is some variety of the Rosa rubrifolia, which is often found in mountainous localities.
19 This assertion is borrowed from Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. B. vi. c. 6. Fée remarks that there is no truth in it. It is not improbable, however, that the word "cortex" here may mean, not the calyx, but the bark of the stem, in reference to its exemption from thorns. The τραχὺ τὸ κάτω of Theophrastus would seem to admit of that rendering. See Note55 above.
20 "Extremas velut ad cardines."
21 This is not the case with the Rosa centifolia of modern botany. See Note57 above. It is not improbable, however, that the reading is "probabilis," and that this passage belongs to the next sentence.
22 The Lychnis, Fée remarks, is erroneously classed by Pliny among the roses, It is generally agreed among naturalists that it is the garden flower, the Agrostemma coronaria of Linnæus; which, however, does not grow in humid soils, but in steep, rocky places.
23 Or "small Greek" rose. Some commentators have identified it with the Rosa silvestris, odorata, flore albo of C. Bauhin, a wild white rose.
24 Sillig thinks that this may mean the "Macedonian" rose. Another reading is "moscheuton." Fée says that it is not a rose at all, but one of the Malvaceæ belonging to the genus Alcæa; one variety of which is called the Alcæa rosa.
25 Or "little chaplet." Possibly a variety of the Eglantine, the Rosa canina or dog-rose, Fée suggests.
26 The Eglantine.
27 This seems to be the meaning of "tot modis adulteratur:" the roses without smell appearing to him to be not genuine roses.
28 The Rosa Damascena of Miller, Fée thinks, our Damascus rose.
29 The earliest rose in France and Spain, Fée says, is the "pompon," the variety Pomponæa of the Rosa centifolia.
30 This is consistent with modern experience.
31 From Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. B. vi. c. 6. The rose is but very rarely reproduced from seed.
32 See B. xvi. c. 67, and B. xvii. c. 33.
33 Previously mentioned in this Chapter. The meaning of this passage, however, is extremely doubtful. "Unum genus inseritur pallidæ, spinosæ. longissimis virgis, quinquifoliæ, quæ Græcis altera est."
34 If the water was only lukewarm, Fée says, it would be of no use, and if hotter, the speedy death of the tree would be the result.
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