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Pine-nuts,1 with the resin in them, are slightly bruised, and then boiled down in water to one-half; the proportion of water being one sextarius to each nut. This decoction, taken in doses of two cyathi, is used for the cure of spitting of blood. The bark of the tree, boiled in wine, is given for griping pains in the bowels. The kernels of the pine-nut allay thirst, and assuage acridities and gnawing pains in the stomach; they tend also to neutralize vicious humours in that region, recruit the strength, and are salutary to the kidneys and the bladder. They would seem, however, to exercise an irritating effect2 upon the fauces, and to increase cough. Taken in water, wine, raisin wine, or a decoction of dates, they carry off bile. For gnawing pains in the stomach of extreme violence, they are mixed with cucumber-seed and juice of purslain; they are employed, too, in a similar manner for ulcerations of the bladder and kidneys,3 having a diuretic effect.

1 They are no longer used in medicine, Fée says, but the buds of the pine and fir, the properties of which are analogous, are still used, though not in cases of hæmoptysis.

2 In a rancid state particularly, they would have this effect.

3 Fée thinks that the mixture might be useful in these cases.

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