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Below these countries, and in the province of Cyrenaica, the perfume called sphagnos1 is found in the highest state of per- fection: there are some who call it by the name of bryon. The sphagnos of Cyprus holds the second rank, and that of Phœnicia the third. It is said that this plant is produced in Egypt also, and in Gaul as well, and I see no reason to doubt that such is the fact, for this name is given to certain white shaggy tufts upon trees, such as we often see upon the quercus: those, however, of which we are speaking, emit a most exquisite odour. The most esteemed of all are the whitest, and those situate at the greatest height upon the tree. Those of second quality are red, while those which are black are not of the slightest value. The sphagnos, too, that is produced on islands and among rocks,2 is held in no esteem, as well as all those varieties which have the odour of the palm-tree, and not that which is so peculiarly their own.

1 It is clear that, under this name, certain lichens of a hairy or filamentary nature are meant. They adhere, Dioscorides tells us, to the cedar, the white poplar, and the oak. The white ones belong, probably, to the Usnea florida of Linnæus, the red ones to the Usuea barbata, and the black ones to the Alectoria jubata, an almost inodoruus liohen.

2 Probably the Roccella tinctoria of Linnæus, a lichen most commonly found upon rocks.

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