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1 The First Region extended from the Tiber to the Gulf of Salernum, being bounded in the interior by the Apennines. It consisted of ancient Latium and Campania, comprising the modern Campagna di Roma, and the provinces of the kingdom of Naples.
2 Livy, B. i. c. 3, and Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. 1. 389, inform us that the name of Albula was changed into Tiberis in consequence of king Tiberinus being accidentally drowned in it.
3 Still known by that name. The Glanis is called la Chiana.
4 According to D'Anville, now known as Citta di Castello.
5 A municipal town of Umbria, situate near the confluence of the rivers Nar and Tiber, and on the Flaminian Way. There are the ruins of an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and some temples, now the modern Otricoli.
6 The territory of Umbria extended from the left bank of the Tiber, near its rise, to the Adriatic.
7 The Sabines occupied the left bank of the Tiber from the Umbri to the Anio. The Crustumini and the Fidenates probably occupied the southern part of the district about the river Alba.
8 The Nera and the Tevcrone. The exact situation of the district of Vaticanum has not been ascertained with exactness.
9 As not so much causing mischief by its inundations, as giving warning thereby of the wrath of the gods and of impending dangers; which might be arrested by sacrifices and expiatory rites.—See Horace, Odes, B. i. 2. 29.
10 The frontier of ancient Latium was at Circeii, but that of modern Latium extended to Sinuessa.
11 A town of Latium, situate at the foot of the Mons Circeius, now Monte Circello. It was used as a place of retirement, and Tiberius and Domitian had villas there. The Triumvir Lepidus was banished thither by Octavius after his deposition. It was also famous for its oysters, which were of the finest quality. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill called Monte di Citadella, about two miles from the sea.
12 Now the Garigliano, the same river which he previously calls the Glanis. It was the boundary between Latium and Campania.
13 Founded by Ancus Martius, as we learn from Livy. It was abandoned under the Emperor Claudius, who built the Portus Romanus or Portus Augusti in its vicinity; and it only continued famous for its salt-works, which had been established there by Ancus Martius. Its ruins, still called Ostia, are nearly three miles from the coast, in consequence of the receding of the sea.
14 Now San Lorenzo. It was between Ostia and Antium.
15 By some, Æneas was supposed to have been worshiped by that name.
16 Now the river Numico.
17 The ruins of this once great city may still be seen near the present village of the same name. Its situation was peculiarly unhealthy. Another tradition, besides the one mentioned by Pliny, was, that it was founded by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was twenty-four miles distant from Rome.
18 A temple of Venus, of which the ruins are still to be seen.
19 Its few ruins are still known as Anzio Rovinato. It was famous for its temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace, Odes, i. 35. Near the site is the modern village of Porto d'Anzo.
20 This island was occupied by villas of the Roman nobility, and was the resort of Cicero, Augustus and Tiberius. There is still a fortified town called the Torre di Astura.
21 The modern Ninfa.
22 "The Roman Bulwarks." They were thrown up to protect the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Rome from the inroads of the Volscians
23 To our previous note we may add that this spot was supposed to have been once inhabited by the enchantress Circe, the daughter of the Sun, and from her to have taken its name.
24 This has been also translated "dedicated to Nicodorus, the Archon of Athens," but nothing appears to be known of such a fact as the dedication to Nicodorus of any of his works.
25 Now called the "Palude Pontine." They are again mentioned in B. xxvi. c. 9.
26 Now called Il Portatore.
27 It was situate fifty-eight miles from Rome; the modern town of Terracina stands on its site. The remains of the ancient citadel are visible on the slope of Montecchio.
28 The exact site of this place is unknown. Servius, in his Commentary on B. x. of the Æneid, l. 564, tells the same story of the serpents.
29 This was near Amyclæ. A villa was situate there called "Speluncæ," from the cavities in the rock, in one of which the Emperor Tiberius nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof. The modern village of Sperlonga, eight miles west of Gaëta, marks its site.
30 Now Lago di Fondi.
31 Now Gaëta, said to have received its name from being the burial place of Caieta, the nurse of Æneas. The shore was studded with numerous villas of the Roman nobility. It is now a city of great opulence; in its vicinity extensive ruins are to be seen.
32 On the spot now called Mola di Gaëta. Many of the wealthy Romans, and among them Cicero, had villas here: and at this place he was put to death. It was destroyed by the Saracens in the year 856. The remains of antiquity to be seen on this spot are very extensive.
33 Homer places these Cannibals on the coast of Sicily, but the Romans in general transplanted them to the vicinity of Circeii, and suppose Formiæ to have been built by Lamus, one of their kings. It is more probable however that it was founded by the Laconians, from whom it may have received its name of Hormiæ (from the Greek ὅρμος), as being a good roadstead for shipping.
34 Its site is occupied by the present Trajetta. In its marshes, formed by the overflow of the Liris, Caius Marius was taken prisoner, concealed in the sedge.
35 The town of Minturnæ stood on both banks of the river.
36 Its ruins are probably those to be seen in the vicinity of Rocca di Mondragone. It was a place of considerable commercial importance. On its site Livy says there formerly stood the Greek city of Sinope.
37 "Felix illa Campania."
38 Now Sezza.
39 A marshy district of Latium, extending about eight miles along the coast from Terracina to Speluncæ, famous in the time of Horace for the first-rate qualities of its wines.
40 A district famous for its wines, extending from the Massican Hills to the north bank of the Volturnus.
41 According to Hardouin, the town of Calenum was on the site of the present Calvi near Capua.
42 Now called Monte Marsico, and as famous for its wine (called Museatella) as it was in the Roman times.
43 Now Monte Barbaro. The wines of most of these places will be found fully described by Pliny in B. xiv.
44 More fully mentioned, B. xviii. c. 29, where the 'alicæ' or fermenty made from the spelt grown here is again referred to.
45 Of Baiæ, Puteoli, and Stabiæ, for instance.
46 The modern Saove.
47 Now called the Volturno, with a small place on its banks called Castel Volturno.
48 The present village of Torre di Patria is supposed to occupy its site.
49 Strabo describes Cumæ as a joint colony of the Chalcidians of Eubœa and the Cymæans of Æolis. Its sea-shore was covered with villas of the Roman aristocracy, and here Sylla spent the last years of his life. Its site is now utterly desolate and its existing remains inconsiderable.
50 Now Capo or Punta di Miseno; a town built on a promontory of Campania, by Æneas, it was said, in honour of his trumpeter, Misenus, who was drowned there. It was made by Augustus the principal station of the Roman fleet. Here was the villa of Marius, which afterwards belonged to Lucullus and the Emperor Tiberius, who died here.
51 Famous for its warm springs, and the luxurious resort of the Roman patricians. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Cæsar had villas here. In later times it became the seat of every kind of pleasure and dissipation. It is now rendered unwholesome by the Malaria, and the modern Castello di Baja, with numerous ruins, alone marks its site.
52 The modern village of Baolo stands near its site. It was here that Hortensius had his fish-ponds, mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c. 55. It rivalled its neighbour Baiæ in ministering to the luxury of the wealthy Romans, and was occupied by numerous villas so late as the reign of Theodosius.
53 Probably the inner part of the Gulf of Cumæ or Puteoli, but separated from the remainder by an embankment eight stadia in length. It was famous for its oyster-beds. Behind it was the Lake Avernus, occupying the crater of an extinct volcano, and supposed by the Greeks to be the entrance to the Infernal Regions. Agrippa opened a communication with the Lucrine Lake to render Lake Avernus accessible to ships. The Lucrine Lake was filled up by a volcanic eruption in 1538, and a mountain rose in its place. The Lake Avernus is still called the Lago di Averno.
54 Or "the town Cimmerium." Nothing is known of it.
55 Now Pozzuolo. The Romans called it Puteoli, from the strong smell of its mineral springs. There are still many ruins of the ancient town, which was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and as many times rebuilt.
57 Now the Lago di Fusaro. It seems to have had its name from its vicinity to Avernus, the supposed entrance to the infernal regions. Its banks were, in the later times of the Roman republic, adorned with the villas of the wealthy.
58 Neapolis, or the "New City," was founded by the Chalcidians of Cumæ on the site of Parthenope, the supposed burial-place of the Siren of that name. It was so called as being only a 'new quarter' of the neighbouring city of Cumæ. The modern city of Naples stands nearly on its site.
59 Said to have been founded by Hercules. It was on the occasion of its destruction by an eruption of Vesuvius, A.D. 79, that our author unfortunately met his death, a martyr to his thirst for knowledge. Its closer proximity to Vesuvius caused it to be buried under a more solid body of materials ejected from the mountain than was the case with Pompeii; which seems to have been suffocated with ashes, while Herculaneum was covered with volcanic tufa most probably hardened by the agency of water. A few scattered inhabitants are supposed to have afterwards settled upon the site where it was buried, which for many centuries was utterly forgotten, till brought to light in 1738. Part of the site over the buried town is occupied by the villages of Resina and Portici. The works of art found here far exceed in value and interest those discovered at Pompeii.
60 This seems to have been a town of Oscan origin. The first traces of it were found in 1689, but excavations were not commenced till 1721. It perished in the same eruption of Vesuvius as Herculaneum.
61 Now the Sarno. Its course was changed by the great eruption of Vesuvius previously mentioned.
62 The modern Nocera stands on its site. Pompeii was used as its harbour.
63 Now Sorrento.
64 Now also called Capo della Minerva.
65 It probably had its name from Campania, of which it was the capital, and which was so called from its extensive campi or plains. The site of this luxurious and magnificent city is now occupied by the village of Santa Maria di Capoua, the modern city of Capua being on the site of ancient Casilinum. Of ancient Capua there are but few remains. It was made a Roman colony by Julius Cæsar.
66 Originally a city of the Volscians: Cicero had a villa there, and Juvenal and the emperor Pescennius Niger were natives of it. The present Aquino stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of it to be seen.
67 Or Suessa Aurunca, to distinguish it from the Volscian city of Suessa Pometia. The poet Lucilius was a native of it. The modern Sessa stands in its vicinity.
68 The modern Venafri stands near its site. It was famous for the excellence of its olives.
69 On the banks of the Suris, and the most northerly town of the Volsci. The modern Sora is in its vicinity, and the remains of its walls are still to be seen.
70 The modern Teano occupies its site. It was famous for the medicinal springs in its vicinity. There was another Teanum, in Apulia.
71 The town on its site still preserves the name. Bells were made here, whence in the later writers they are called "Nolæ." There is also an ecclesiastical tradition that church bells were first used by Saint Paulinus, bishop of this place, whence they were called 'Campanæ.' The emperor Augustus died here.
72 The remains of the ancient town, of which the ruins are very extensive, are called Avella Vecchia. It was famous for its fruit, especially its filberts, to which it gives name in the French "Avelines." It was first a Greek colony, and then a town of the Oscans.
73 A city of Latium, sixteen miles from Rome, and said to have been of Sicilian origin. The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of its citadel. It was celebrated for the temple and grove of Diana, whose high priest was always a fugitive slave who had killed his predecessor, and was called "Rex nemorensis," or "king of the grove." See Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 59; Art of Love, B. i. 1. 260; and Lucan, B. vi. 1. 74.
74 The ancient city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, king of Rome. The Roman colony here was probably but small. The Roman patrician families, the Julii, Servilii, Tullii, and Quintii, are said to have migrated from Alba Longa, which, according to tradition, had given to Rome her first king.
75 The people of Acerra, still called by the same name; it was plundered and burnt by Hannibal, B.C. 216, but was rebuilt by order of the Roman senate.
76 The people of Allifæ, a former city of Samnium, on the borders of Campania. The modern city of A life, a decayed place, stands on its site. There are considerable remains.
77 The people of Atina, an ancient city of the Volscians. The modern city of Atina, noted for the bleakness of its situation, stands on its site. There are extensive ruins of the ancient city.
78 The people of Aletrium or Alatrium, an ancient city of the Hernici. The modern Alatri stands on its site; there are but few ancient remains.
79 The people of Anagnia in Latium, still called Anagni. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient place, which was of considerable importance.
80 The people of Atella, an ancient city of Campania. Some remains of its ruins are to be seen two miles east of the town of Aversa, near the villages of San Arpino and San Elpidio.
81 The people of Affilæ, an ancient Hernican town. It is still called Affile, and has many ancient remains.
82 The people of Arpinum, once a famous city of the Volscians. The present Arpino occupies its site; there are few Roman remains, but its ancient walls, of Cyclopean construction, still exist. It was the birthplace of Marius and Cicero. The villa of the latter was on the banks of the adjoining river Fibrenus. It was, and is still, famous for its woollen manufactures.
83 The people of Auximum, a city of Picenum. Its site is occupied by the modern Osimo; there are numerous remains of antiquity to be seen.
84 Or perhaps "Abellini," people of Abelliacum; which, if meant, ought not to be included in this division, being a city of the Hirpini. This city was finally destroyed in the wars of the Greeks and Lombards, and the modern Avellino rose on its site. There are considerable ruins in the vicinity. According to Hardouin, this place also claimed the honour of giving name to filberts, which grew abundantly in its vicinity. If such is the case, it seems probable that both it and Abella took their names from that fruit as called by the early inhabitants. See Note in p. 198.
85 An ancient city of Latium. Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the Via Appia. See a curious story connected with it in Ovid's Fasti, B. iii. 1. 667 et seq.
86 There were two cities of this name on the confines of Samnium and Campania, one in the valley of the Volturnum, the modern Caiazzo, the other in Campania, between Capua and Beneventum, whose ruins are probably those to be seen at Le Galazzi, between Caserta and Maddaloni.
87 Once a considerable city of Latium. The modern city of San Germano has risen on its ruins, while the name of Monte Casino has been retained by the monastery founded near it by St. Bernard A.D. 529.
88 The present Calvi probably occupies its site.
89 It is not named in history. Its site was probably between Palestrina and Il Piglio.
90 The people of Cereatæ, a town of Latium. It is supposed that the ancient monastery of Casamari occupied its site.
91 The people of Cora, an ancient city of Latium. The present Cori stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of the ancient walls and other buildings.
92 The people of Castrimœnium, a colony of Sylla. It has been suggested that these were the same people whom Pliny speaks of at a subsequent place in this chapter as the Munienses, an extinct people of Latium. If so, the name was perhaps changed on the establishment here by Sylla of his colony. It probably stood near the modern city of Marino.
93 The people of Cingulum, a city of Picenum, the site of which is occupied by the modern Cingoli.
94 It is conjectured that Fabia was on the same site as the present village of Rocca di Papa.
95 The inhabitants of Forum Popilii in Campania; its site is unknown.
96 The people of Frusino, originally a Volscian city. The modern Frosinone occupies its site.
97 The people of Ferentinum, a city of the Hernici: the present city of Ferentino stands on its site. The ruins are very extensive.
98 Probably the people of Fregellæ, an ancient city of the Volscians. Its site is now unknown, but it was probably on the banks of the Liris, opposite to the modern Ceprano.
99 The people of Fabrateria or Frabateria, a Volscian city. A Roman colony was placed there B.C. 124, by C. Gracchus, and probably the old inhabitants for that reason styled themselves "Veteres." The ruins at San Giovanni in Cerico, about three miles from Falvaterra, are supposed to be those of this place, or at least of the new town or colony. In such case Falvaterra may occupy the site of the original city.
100 The people of Ficulnea or Ficulia, a city of ancient Latium, on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed to have decayed soon after the reign of M. Aurelius. Its site was probably on the modern domain of Cesarini, though some separate the ancient Latin city from the Roman town, and fix the locality of the former on the hill called Monte Gentile, or that of the Torre Lupara.
101 These are omitted in most editions, but if a correct reading, the word must signify the "people of Fregellæ," and the Freginates must be the people of Fregenæ in Etruria; although they do not appear properly to belong to this locality.
102 "The Market of Appius." It was distant forty-three miles from Rome, and we learn from Horace, that it was the usual resting-place for travellers at the end of one day's journey from Rome. It is also mentioned in the account of the journey of St. Paul (Acts xxviii. 15) as one of the usual resting-places on the Appian way. There are now no inhabitants on the spot, but considerable ruins still exist, as well as the forty-third milestone, which is still to be seen.
103 Probably the inhabitants of Ferentium or Ferentinum, now Ferento, five miles from Viterbo, a city of Etruria, of which very considerable remains exist.
104 The people of Gabii, formerly one of the most famous cities of Latium. On its site the ruins of a mediæval fortress now stand, known as Castiglione. Some remains of the walls still exist.
105 The people of Interamna Lirmas, a Roman colony on the banks of the Liris; and as there were several cities of the same name, it was generally distinguished by the epithet "Lirinas." Pliny no doubt calls it "Succasina," from its vicinity to Casinum. Its site, though uninhabited, is still called Terame, and there are numerous remains of antiquity.
106 Probably the people of Lavinium were thus called from their supposed Trojan descent. The town was said to have been founded by Æneas in honour of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. In the times of the Antonines it was united with Laurentum; their ruins are to be seen at Casale di Copocotta.
107 The people of Norba, a town of Latium. It is now called Norma, and there are still some remains of the ancient walls.
108 Nomentum, now called La Mentana, was a Latin town, fourteen miles from Rome.
109 The people of Præneste, one of the most ancient towns of Latium. It was originally a Pelasgic city, but claimed a Greek origin, and was said to have been built by Telegonus, the son of Ulysses. During summer it was much frequented by the Romans for its delightful coolness. The remains of its ancient walls are still to be seen at Palestrina.
110 The people of Privernum, now Piperno, an ancient city of Latium.
111 The people of Setia, now Sesse or Sezza, an ancient town of Latium, to the east of the Pomptine marshes. It was famous for its wine.
112 The people of Signia, now Segni, a town of Latium founded by Tarquinius Priscus. There are still some remains of its walls.
113 The people of Suessula, now Castel di Sessola.
114 The people of Telesia, a town of Samnium seven leagues from Capua, now called Telese.
115 Trebula was distinguished probably by this surname from a town of that name in Samnium. There seem to have been two places of the name in the Sabine territory, but it is not known which is here meant. The ruins of one of them are supposed to be those not far from Maddaloni.
116 The people of Treba, now Trevi, a town of Latium.
117 The people of Tusculum, an ancient town of Latium, the ruins of which are to be seen on a hill about two miles distant from the modern Frascati. Cicero's favourite residence was his Tusculan villa, and Cato the censor was a native of this place.
118 The people of Verulæ, a town of the Hernici, in Latium, now Veroli.
119 The people of Velitræ, an ancient town of the Volsci, now Velletri. It was the birth-place of the emperor Augustus.
120 The people of Ulubræ, a small town of Latium, near the Pomptine Marshes; its site is unknown.
121 The people of Urbinum; there were two places of that name in Umbria, now called Urbeno and Urbania.
122 The name probably by which the city was called in the mystical language of the priesthood. It has been said that this mysterious name of Rome was Valentia; if so, it appears to be only a translation of her name Græcized—῾ρώμη, "strength." This subject will be found again mentioned in B. xxviii. c. 4.
123 Solinus says that he was put to death as a punishment for his rashness. M. Sichel has suggested that this mysterious name was no other than Angerona.
124 It is not known whether this mystical divinity was the goddess of anguish and fear, or of silence, or whether she was the guardian deity of Rome. Julius Modestus says that she relieved men and cattle when visited by the disease called "angina," or "quinsy," whence her name.
125 The Carmental, the Roman, and the Pandanian or Saturnian gates, according to Varro.
126 Titus was saluted Imperator after the siege of Jerusalem, and was associated with his father Vespasian in the government. They also acted together as Censors.
127 The Lares Compitales presided over the divisions of the city, which were marked by the compita or points where two or more streets crossed each other, and where 'ædiculæ' or small chapels were erected in their honour. Statues of these little divinities were erected at the corner of every street. It was probably this custom which first suggested the idea of setting up images of the Virgin and Saints at the corners of the streets, which are still to be seen in many Roman Catholic countries at the present day.
128 This was a gilded column erected by Augustus in the Forum, and called "milliarium aureum;" on it were inscribed the distances of the principal points to which the "viæ" or high-roads conducted.
129 Supposing the circuit of the city to have been as he says, 13 2/5 miles, he must either make a great miscalculation here, or the text must be very corrupt. The average diameter of the city would be in such case about 4 1/2 miles, the average length of each radius drawn from the mile-column 2 1/4 miles, and the total amount 83 1/4 miles, whereas he makes it but 20 3/4 miles, or little better than an average of half-a-mile for each radius. We may also remark that the camp of the Prætorian cohorts here mentioned was established by the emperor Tiberius, by the advice of Sejanus. Ajasson's translation makes the measurement to be made to twelve gates only, but the text as it stands will not admit of such a construction.
130 The Aventine, Cælian, and Quirinal hills.
131 Such as Ocriculum, Tibur, Aricia, &c.
132 Near Antium. Casale di Conca stands on its site.
133 Suæssa Pometia. It was destroyed by the consul Servilius, and its site was said, with that of twenty-two other towns, to have been covered by the Pomptine Marsh, to which it gave its name.
134 A town of Latium destroyed by Ancus Martius.
135 An ancient city of Latium, conquered by Romulus; on which occasion he slew its king Acron and gained the spolia opima. Nibby suggests that it stood on the Magugliano, two miles south-east of Monte Gentile. Holstein says that it stood where the present Sant' Angelo or Monticelli stands.
136 Also destroyed by Ancus Martius. A farm called Dragonello, eleven miles from Rome, is supposed to have stood upon its site. Tellene was also destroyed by the same king. Tifata was a town of Campania.
137 A city of Latium, which was conquered by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that its ruins are visible about a mile to the north of Monte Sant' Angelo.
138 A Sabine town, the people of which were incorporated by Tarquinius Priscus with the Roman citizens. It is supposed to have stood on the present Monte Sant' Angelo.
139 An ancient city of Latium, subdued by Tarquinius Priscus, on which occasion Ocrisia, the mother of Servius Tullius, fell into the hands of the Romans as a captive. It was probably situate on one of the isolated hills that rise from the plain of the Campagna.
140 Both Virgil and Ovid allude to this tradition.
141 Said to have been so called from being "opposite" to the ancient city of Saturnia. The Janiculus or Janiculum was a fortress on the opposite bank of the Tiber, and a suburb of Rome, connected with it by the Sublician bridge.
142 A very ancient city situate three miles from Rome, and said to have been so called from its position on the Tiber, ante amnem. In the time of Strabo it had become a mere village. It stood at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber.
143 An ancient city of Latium reduced by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that the town of Palombara, near the foot of Monte Gennaro, stands on its site.
144 An ancient city of Latium. It probably gradually fell into decay. Lucius Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, is represented as dwelling here during the siege of Ardea. Its site is thought by some to have been at Castellaccio or Castel dell' Osa, and by others at Lunghezza, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture.
145 An ancient city of the Sabines. Its ruins are visible at San Vittorino, a village near Aquila.
146 An ancient town of the Volsci, five leagues from Velletri. Sermonata now stands on its site. It must not be confounded with the town of the Peligni, the birth-place of Ovid.
147 "Populi Albenses." It does not appear to be exactly known what is the force of this expression, but he probably means either colonies from Alba, or else nations who joined in the confederacy of which Alba was the principal. Niebuhr looks upon them as mere demi or boroughs of the territory of Alba.
148 "Accipere carnem." Literally, "to take the flesh." It appears that certain nations, of which Alba was the chief, were in early times accustomed to meet on the Alban Mount for the purposes of sacrifice. The subject is full of obscurity, but it has been suggested that this minor confederacy co-existed with a larger one including all the Latin cities, and there can be little doubt that the common sacrifice was typical of a bond of union among the states that partook therein. It does not necessarily appear from the context that more than the thirty-one states after mentioned took part therein, though the text may be so construed as to imply that the Latin nations previously mentioned also shared in the sacrifice; if so, it would seem to imply that Alba was the chief city of the whole Latin confederacy. See this subject ably discussed in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography, under the article Latini.
149 The people of Æsulæ. Of this Latin city nothing is known. The territory is mentioned by Horace, and Gell places its site on the Monte Affiliano.
150 The people of Bubentum. Nothing is known of this Latin city or of the preceding ones.
151 Bola was an ancient city of Latium, taken successively by Coriolanus and M. Postumius. Its site is supposed to have been five miles from the modern Palestrina, at the modern village of Lugnano.
152 The people of Corioli. It was probably a Latian town, but fell into the possession of the Volsci, from whom it was taken by Cn. Marcius, who thence obtained the name of "Coriolanus." Monte Giove, nineteen miles from Rome, has been suggested as its site.
153 Pliny is supposed to be in error in representing Fidenæ, the early antagonist of Rome, as being extinct in his time, and he will be found in the sequel reckoning it in the Fourth Region. This ancient Latian town never lost its municipal rank, though it had no doubt in his time become a mere country town. The present Castel Giubileo is supposed to be situate on its site.
154 The people of Horta, a town of Etruria, now Horte. Many Etruscan remains have been discovered there.
155 The people of Longula, a Volscian town. Buon Riposo now occupies its site.
156 The people of Pedum; nothing is known of it. The rest of these nations are either almost or entirely unknown.
157 This was an ancient town between Pompeii and Surrentum. After its overthrow, as mentioned by Pliny, it was in some measure rebuilt, possibly after this passage was penned. It was finally destroyed by the great eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79, and it was here that our author breathed his last.
158 A town three miles west of Capua. It was of much importance as a military position, and played a considerable part in the second Punic war. The period of its final destruction is unknown; but modern Capua is built on its site.
159 This city took the lead in the war of the Latin cities against Tarquinius Priscus. Gell and Nibby think that it was situate about eleven miles from Rome, a mile to the south of the Appian way, where there are some remains that indicate the site of an ancient city, near the stream called the Fosso delle Fratocche. Livy tells us that with the spoils thence derived, Tarquinius celebrated the Ludi Magni for the first time.
160 Opposite Capreæ, and situate on the Promontory of Minerva. Sorrento now stands on its site.
161 The modern Silaro; it was the boundary between Lucania and Campania, and rises in the Apennines.
162 A town in the south of Campania, at the head of the Gulf of Pæstum. In consequence of the aid which they gave to Hannibal, the inhabitants were forced to abandon their town and live in the adjoining villages. The name of Picentini was given, as here stated, to the inhabitants of all the territory between the Promontory of Minerva and the river Silarus. They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes, who were transplanted thither after the conquest of Picenum, B.C. 268. The modern Vicenza stands on its site.
163 The Argonaut. Probably this was only a vague tradition.
164 By using the genitive 'Salerni,' he would seem to imply that the Roman colony of Salernum then gave name to the district of which Picentia was the chief town. Ajasson however has translated it merely "Salernum and Picentia." 'Intus' can hardly mean "inland," as Picentia was near the coast, and so was Salernum.
165 This was an ancient town of Campania, at the innermost corner of the Gulf of Pæstum, situate near the coast, on a height at the foot of which lay its harbour. It attained great prosperity, as Salerno, in the middle ages, and was noted for its School of Health established there; which issued periodically rules for the preservation of health in Latin Leonine verse.
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