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1 By the word "fructus" he no doubt means the edible parts solely, the leaf, stalk, or root, as the case may be.
2 Fée is surprised to find elecampane figuring among the garden vegetables. It has a powerful odour, is bitter, and promotes expectoration. Though not used as a vegetable it is still used as a preserve, or sweetmeat, mixed with sugar. See further on it in c. 29 of this Book.
3 See c. 28 of this Book.
4 See c. 27 of this Book.
5 Fée remarks that this juxtaposition of anise and mallows betokens the most complete ignorance of botany on the part of our author; there being few plants which differ more essentially. The field-mallow, or Malva silvestris of Linnæus, or perhaps several varieties of it, are here referred to. The anise will be further mentioned in c. 74 of this Book.
6 Fée suggests that the plant here mentioned may have been an annual, probably the Lavatorea arborea of botanists, or some kindred species. In a few months it is known to attain a height of ten feet or more.
7 In Fée's opinion this tree cannot have belonged to the family of Malvaceæ; the Adansonia and some other exotics of the family, with which Pliny undoubtedly was not acquainted, being the only ones that attain these gigantic proportions.
8 There is no resemblance between mallows and hemp, any more than there is between mallows and anise.
10 Hardonin thinks that he alludes to the Conferva, or river sponge. again mentioned in B. xxvii. c. 45. Fée, however, dissents from that opinion.
11 In B. xvi. cc. 11 and 13, and in cc. 12 and 14 of the present Book.
12 In c. 11 of the present Book.
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