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1 For an account of this see Herodotus, B. i. c. 94, Tacitus, Ann. B. iv. c. 55, and Velleius Paterculus, B. i. c. 1. These writers all agree as to the fact of the migration of a colony of Lydians under the conduct of Tyrrhenus to the part of Italy afterwards called Etruria. This subject however, as well as the migrations of the Pelasgi, is involved in the greatest obscurity.
2 From the Greek verb θύειν "to sacrifice," he implies:—from their custom of frequently sacrificing, says Servius, on the Xth Book of the Æneid. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says that they were from their frequent sacrifices called θυόσκοοι. These are probably fanciful derivations; but there is no doubt that the people of Etruria were for several centuries the instructors of the Romans in the arts of sacrifice, augury, and divination.
3 The ruins of Luna, which was destroyed by the Normans in the middle ages, are still visible on the banks of the Magra. The modern name of the port is Golfo della Spezzia.
4 The modern city of Lucca has its site and name.—Livy, B. xli. c. 13, informs us that this colony was founded in the year of the city 576, during the Consulship of Claudius Pulcher and Sempronius Gracchus.
5 The modern city of Pisa. See Virgil, B. x. 1. 179, as to the origin of this place.
6 The modern Serchio.
7 Now the Arno.
8 The people of Pisa or Pisæ, a city of Elis in the Peloponnesus.
9 Now Vadi, a small village on the sea-shore.
10 Still called the Cecina. It entered the Tyrrhenian sea, near the port of Vada Volaterrana just mentioned.
11 The present Piombino is supposed to have arisen from the ruins of this place.
12 Now the Bruno.
13 The modern Ombrone.
14 Now known as Telamone Vecchio.
15 There are ruins near lake Orbitello, which bear the name of Cosa: Ansedonia was said to have risen from its ruins, and in its turn fallen to decay.
16 Two localities have been mentioned as the site of Graviscæ, at both of which there are ancient remains: one on the right bank of the Marta, about a mile from its mouth, and the other on the sea-coast at a spot called Santo Clementino or Le Saline, a mile south of the mouth of the Marta. Probably the latter are the remains of Graviscæ, although Dennis (Etruria, i. pp. 387–395) inclines to be in favour of the former.
17 The modern Torre Chiaruccia, five miles south of Civita Vecchia.
18 The modern Torre di Santa Severa.
19 Now the Vaccina.
20 The remains of this once powerful city are marked by the village of Cervetri or Old Cære. According to Strabo it received its name from the Greek word χαῖρε "hail!" with which the inhabitants saluted the Tyrrhenian or Lydian invaders. It was to this place that the Romans sent their most precious sacred relics when their city was taken by the Gauls. Its most interesting remains are the sepulchres, of which an account is given in Dennis's Etruria.
21 Its remains are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village of Palo.
22 Its site is supposed to have been at the spot now called the Torre di Maccarese, midway between Palo and Porto, and at the mouth of the river Arone. Its situation was marshy and unhealthy.
23 This exceeds the real distance, which is about 230 miles.
24 The site of the Etruscan Falerii or Falisci is probably occupied by the present Civita Castellana; while that of the Roman city of the same name, at a distance of four miles, is marked by a single house and the ruins of a church, called Santa Maria di Falleri. The ancient city was captured by the Romans under Camillus.
25 In his book of "Origines," which is now lost.
26 "The Grove of Feronia." The town was so called from the grove of that Sabine goddess there situate. In the early times of Rome there was a great resort to this spot not only for religious purposes, but for those of trade as well. Its traces are still to be seen at the village of Saint Orestes, near the south-east extremity of the hill there, which is still called Felonica. This is in southern Etruria, but Ptolemy mentions another place of the same name in the north-west extremity of Etruria, between the Arnus and the Macra.
27 The people of the spot now called Siena, in Tuscany.
28 Now Sutri, on the river Pozollo.
29 The people of Arretium, one of the most powerful cities of Etruria. The three tribes or peoples here mentioned probably did not occupy distinct towns, but constituted separate communities or municipal bodies, being distinct colonies or bodies of settlers. The Julienses were the colonists settled there by Augustus. The Fidentes had probably settled at an earlier period. The modern Arezzo has risen on the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the Etruscan city are pointed out on an elevated spot called Poggio di San Cornellio, two or three miles southeast of Arezzo. Many valuable relics of antiquity have been discovered here. The family of Mæcenas sprang from this place.
30 The people of Aquæ Tauri, a watering-place of Etruria, situate about three miles north of the present Civita Vecchia, and now called Bagni di Ferrata. The baths are described by Rutilius in his Itinerary, who calls them Tauri Thermæ (the Bull's Baths), and ascribes their name to the fact of their having been accidentally discovered by a bull.
31 The people of Blera, on the site of the modern village of Bieda, about twelve miles south of Viterbo. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been found here.—See Dennis's Etruria, vol. i. pp. 260–272.
32 The people of Cortona, a powerful city of Etruria, which is still known by the same name. It was probably in the number of the cities of Etruria that were ravaged by Sylla, and then recolonized by him. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been discovered there.
33 The people of Capena, an ancient and important city of Etruria, which, after long opposing the inroads of the Romans, was reduced to submission shortly after the fall of Veii, B.C. 393. It existed and held municipal rank till the time of the Emperor Aurelian, after which all traces of its name or existence were lost, till 1750, when Galetti fixed its site with great accuracy at Civitucola or San Martino, about 24 miles from Rome. It was situate on the banks of a small river now called the Grammiccia, and in its territory was the celebrated 'Lucus Feroninæ' previously mentioned.
34 The new and old colonists of the city of Clusium, who probably enjoyed distinct municipal rights. The modern Chiusi stands on its site.
35 The modern Fiorenze or Florence occupies the site of their city.
36 The village of Fiesole stands on its site. Extensive remains of the ancient city are still to be found.
37 The site of Ferentinum is now uninhabited, but is still known by the name of Ferento. The rivers of the ancient city are very considerable; it was finally destroyed by the people of Viterbo in the 12th century.
38 An ancient town of Etruria near Falisci. Cluver thinks that it was situate at Gallese, a village nine miles north of Civita Castellana; but Dennis considers its site to have been between Borghetto on the Tiber and Corchiano, where there are considerable remains of an Etruscan city. The spot is named San Silvestro, from a ruined church there.
39 Or Horta; the spot now called Orte, where numerous Etruscan remains are found; it probably derived its name from the Etruscan goddess Horta. Hortanum, the name given to it by Pliny, is perhaps an adjective form of the name, "oppidun" being understood.
40 Possibly the same as 'Urbs Vetus,' on the side of which the present Orvieto stands.
41 Now Nepi, near the river Pozzolo.
42 According to Hardouin the site of the Novem Pagi, or nine Boroughs, is occupied by the modern Il Mignone, near Civita Vecchia.
43 Its site is generally supposed to have been at Oriuolo, about five miles north of Bracciano; but Dennis informs us that there are no ancient remains at that place. Being a præfecture it may have consisted of only a number of little villages, united in one jurisdiction.
44 The modern Pistoia stands on its site.
45 Now Perugia.
46 Supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the site of the modern Sovretto.
47 Probably situate in the modern duchy of Castro.
48 The people of Tarquinii near Rome, the head of the Etruscan confederation. It was here that Demaratus the Corinthian, the father of Tarquinius Priscus, settled. It was deserted by its inhabitants in the eighth or ninth century, who founded the town of Corneto on a hill opposite to it. The ruins are known as Turchina, a corruption of the ancient name.
49 The site of their town is probably marked by the modern Toscanella.
50 The ruins of their town still retain somewhat of their ancient name in that of "Vetulia."
51 The people of the powerful city of Veii, subdued by Camillus. Its ruins have been discovered in the vicinity of the village of Isola Farnese.
52 Their town stood on the site of the present Bisontia.
53 The people of Volaterræ, the present Volterra, one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan Confederation. It was for a time the residence of the kings of Lombardy. The modern town covers only a small portion of the area of the ancient city, of which there are some interesting remains.
54 The people of Volci or Vulci, of which the ruins bear the same name. Its sepulchres have produced vast treasures of ancient art.
55 The people of Volsinii or Vulsinii, now called Bolsena. This was one of the most ancient and powerful of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation. On their subjugation by the Romans the Etruscan city was destroyed, and its inhabitants were compelled to settle on a less defensible site. The new city was the birth-place of Sejanus, the worthless favourite of Tiberius. Of the ancient city there are scarcely any remains.
56 Called also Crustumeria, Crustumium, and Crustuminium. It was a city of Latium on the borders of the Sabine country, and was subdued by Romulus, though it afterwards appears as independent in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. The territory was noted for its fertility. The exact site of the city is unknown; a place called Marcigliana Vecchia, about nine miles from Rome, seems the most probable.
57 The site of Caletra is quite unknown. It was situate at some point in the present valley of the Albegna.
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