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The Tiber or Tiberis, formerly called Thybris, and previously Albula2, flows down from nearly the central part of the chain of the Apennines, in the territory of the Arretini. It is at first small, and only navigable by means of sluices, in which the water is dammed up and then discharged, in the same manner as the Timia3 and the Glanis, which flow into it; for which purpose it is found necessary to collect the water for nine days, unless there should happen to be a fall of rain. And even then, the Tiber, by reason of its rugged and uneven channel, is really more suitable for navigation by rafts than by vessels, for any great distance. It winds along for a course of 150 miles, passing not far from Tifernum4, Perusia, and Ocriculum5, and dividing Etruria from the Umbri6 and the Sabini7, and then, at a distance of less than sixteen miles from the city, separating the territory of Veii from that of Crustuminum, and afterwards that of the Fidenates and of Latium from Vaticanum.

Below its union with the Glanis from Arretinum the Tiber is swollen by two and forty streams, particularly the Nar8 and the Anio, which last is also navigable and shuts in Latium at the back; it is also increased by the numerous aqueducts and springs which are conveyed to the City. Here it becomes navigable by vessels of any burden which may come up from the Italian sea; a most tranquil dispenser of the produce of all parts of the earth, and peopled and embellished along its banks with more villas than nearly all the other rivers of the world taken together. And yet there is no river more circumscribed than it, so close are its banks shut in on either side; but still, no resistance does it offer, although its waters frequently rise with great suddenness, and no part is more liable to be swollen than that which runs through the City itself. In such case, however, the Tiber is rather to be looked upon9 as pregnant with prophetic warnings to us, and in its increase to be considered more as a promoter of religion than a source of devastation.

Latium10 has preserved its original limits, from the Tiber to Circeii11, a distance of fifty miles: so slender at the beginning were the roots from which this our Empire sprang. Its inhabitants have been often changed, and different nations have peopled it at different times, the Aborigines, the Pelasgi, the Arcades, the Seculi, the Aurunci, the Rutuli, and, beyond Circeii, the Volsci, the Osci, and the Ausones whence the name of Latium came to be extended as far as the river Liris12.

We will begin with Ostia13, a colony founded by a king of Rome, the town of Laurentum14, the grove of Jupiter Indiges15, the river Numicius16, and Ardea17, founded by Danaë, the mother of Perseus. Next come the former site of Aphrodisium18, the colony of Antium19, the river and island called Astura20, the river Nymphæus21, the Clostra Romana22, and Circeii23, formerly an island, and, if we are to believe Homer, surrounded by the open sea, though now by an extensive plain. The circumstances which we are enabled to publish on this subject for the information of the world are very remarkable. Theophrastus, the first foreigner who treated of the affairs of Rome with any degree of accuracy (for Theopompus, before whose time no Greek writer had made mention of us, only stated the fact that the city had been taken by the Gauls, and Clitarchus, the next after him, only spoke of the embassy that was sent by the Romans to Alexander)—Theophrastus, I say, following something more than mere rumour, has given the circuit of the island of Circeii as being eighty stadia, in the volume which he wrote during the archonship of Nicodorus at Athens24, being the 440th year of our city. Whatever land therefore has been annexed to that island beyond the circumference of about ten miles, has been added to Italy since the year previously mentioned.

Another wonderful circumstance too.—Near Circeii are the Pomptine Marshes25, formerly the site, according to Mucianus, who was thrice consul, of four-and-twenty cities. Next to this comes the river Ufens26, upon which is the town of Terracina27, called, in the language of the Volsci, Anxur; the spot too where Amyclæ28 stood, a town destroyed by serpents. Next is the site of the Grotto29, Lake Fundanus30, the port of Caieta31, and then the town of Formiæ32, formerly called Hormiæ, the ancient seat of the Læstrygones33, it is supposed. Beyond this, formerly stood the town of Pyræ; and we then come to the colony of Minturnæ34, which still exists, and is divided35 by the river Liris, also called the Glanis. The town of Sinuessa36 is the last in the portion which has been added to Latium; it is said by some that it used to be called Sinope.

At this spot begins that blessed country Campania37, and in this vale first take their rise those hills clad with vines, the juice of whose grape is extolled by Fame all over the world; the happy spot where, as the ancients used to say, father Liber and Ceres are ever striving for the mastery. Hence the fields of Setia38 and of Cæcubum39 extend afar. and, next to them those of Falernum40 and of Calinum41. As soon as we have passed these, the hills of Massica42, of Gaurus43, and of Surrentum rise to our view. Next, the level plains of Laborium44 are spread out far and wide, where every care is bestowed on cultivating crops of spelt, from which the most delicate fermenty is made. These shores are watered by warm springs45, while the seas are distinguished beyond all others for the superlative excellence of their shell and other fish. In no country too has the oil of the olive a more exquisite flavour. This territory, a battle-ground as it were for the gratification of every luxurious pleasure of man, has been held successively by the Osci, the Greeks, the Umbri, the Tusci, and the Campani.

On the coast we first meet with the river Savo46, the town of Volturnum with a river47 of the same name, the town of Liternum48, Cumæ49, a Chalcidian colony, Misenum50, the port of Baiæ51, Bauli52, the Lucrine Lake53, and Lake Avernus, near which there stood formerly a town54 of the Cimmerians. We then come to Puteoli55, formerly called the colony of Dicæ- archia, then the Phlegræn56 Plains, and the Marsh of Acherusia57 in the vicinity of Cumæ.

Again, on the coast we have Neapolis58, also a colony of the Chalcidians, and called Parthenope from the tomb there of one of the Sirens, Herculaneum59, Pompeii60, from which Mount Vesuvius may be seen at no great distance, and which is watered by the river Sarnus61; the territory of Nuceria, and, at the distance of nine miles from the sea, the town of that name62, and then Surrentum63, with the Promontory of Minerva64, formerly the abode of the Sirens. The distance thence by sea to Circeii is seventy-eight miles This region, beginning at the Tiber, is looked upon as the first of Italy according to the division of Augustus.

Inland there are the following colonies:—Capua65, so called from its champaign country, Aquinum66, Suessa67, Venafrum68, Sora69, Teanum surnamed Sidicinum70, Nola71; and the towns of Abella72, Aricia73, Alba Longa74, the Acer- rani75, the Allifani76, the Atinates77, the Aletrinates78, the Anagnini79, the Atellani80, the Affilani81, the Arpinates82, the Auximates83, the Abellani84, the Alfaterni (both those who take their names from the Latin, the Hernican and the Labicanian territory), Bovillæ85, Calatia86, Casi- num87, Calenum88, Capitulum89 of the Hernici, the Cereatini90, surnamed Mariani, the Corani91, descended from the Trojan Dardanus, the Cubulterini, the Castrimœnienses92, the Cingulani93, the Fabienses94 on the Alban Mount, the Foropopulienses95 of the Falernian district, the Frusinates96, the Ferentinates97, the Freginates98, the old Frabaterni99, the new Frabaterni, the Ficolenses100, the Fre- gellani101, Forum Appî102, the Forentani103, the Gabini104, the Interamnates Succasini105, also surnamed Lirinates, the Ilionenses Lavinii106, the Norbani107, the Nomentani108, the Prænestini109 (whose city was formerly called Stephané), the Privernates110, the Setini111, the Signini112, the Suessulani113, the Telesini114, the Trebulani, surnamed Balinienses115, the Trebani116, the Tusculani117, the Verulani118, the Veliterni119, the Ulubrenses120, the Urbinates121, and, last and greater than all, Rome herself, whose other name122 the hallowed mysteries of the sacred rites forbid us to mention without being guilty of the greatest impiety. After it had been long kept buried in secresy with the strictest fidelity and in respectful and salutary silence, Valerius Soranus dared to divulge it, but soon did he pay the penalty123 of his rashness.

It will not perhaps be altogether foreign to the purpose, if I here make mention of one peculiar institution of our forefathers which bears especial reference to the inculcation of silence on religious matters. The goddess Angerona124, to whom sacrifice is offered on the twelfth day before the calends of January [21st December], is represented in her statue as having her mouth bound with a sealed fillet.

Romulus left the city of Rome, if we are to believe those who state the very greatest number, having three125 gates and no more. When the Vespasians were emperors126 and censors, in the year from its building 826, the circumference of the walls which surrounded it was thirteen miles and two-fifths. Surrounding as it does the Seven Hills, the city is divided into fourteen districts, with 265 cross-roads127 under the guardianship of the Lares. If a straight line is drawn from the mile-column128 placed at the entrance of the Forum, to each of the gates, which are at present thirty-seven in number (taking care to count only once the twelve double gates, and to omit the seven old ones, which no longer exist), the result will be [taking them altogether], a straight line of twenty miles and 765 paces129. But if we draw a straight line from the same mile-column to the very last of the houses, including therein the Prætorian encampment, and follow throughout the line of all the streets, the result will then be something more than seventy miles. Add to these calculations the height of the houses, and then a person may form a fair idea of this city, and will certainly be obliged to admit that there is not a place throughout the whole world that for size can be compared to it. On the eastern side it is bounded by the agger of Tarquinius Superbus, a work of surpassing grandeur; for he raised it so high as to be on a level with the walls on the side on which the city lay most exposed to attack from the neighbouring plains. On all the other sides it has been fortified either with lofty walls or steep and precipitous hills130, but so it is, that its buildings, increasing and extending beyond all bounds, have now united many other cities to it131.

Besides those previously mentioned, there were formerly in the first region the following famous towns of Latium: Satricum132, Pometia133, Scaptia, Politorium134, Tellene, Tifata, Cænina135, Ficana136, Crustumerium, Ameriola137, Medullum138, Corniculum139, Saturnia140, on the site of the present city of Rome, Antipolis141, now Janiculum, forming part of Rome, Antemnæ142, Carnerium143, Collatia144, Amitinum145, Norbe, Sulmo146, and, with these, those Alban nations147 who used to take part in the sacrifices148 upon the Alban Mount, the Albani, the Æsulani149, the Accienses, the Abolani, the Bube- tani150, the Bolani151, the Cusuetani, the Coriolani152, the Fidenates153, the Foretii, the Hortenses154, the Latinienses, the Longulani155, the Manates, the Macrales, the Mutucumenses, the Munienses, the Numinienses, the Olliculani, the Octulani, the Pedani156, the Polluscini, the Querquetulani, the Sicani, the Sisolenses, the Tolerienses, the Tutienses, the Vimitellarii, the Velienses, the Venetulani, and the Vitellenses. Thus we see, fifty-three peoples of ancient Latium have passed away without leaving any traces of their existence.

In the Campanian territory there was also the town of Stabiæ157, until the consulship of Cneius Pompeius and L. Cato, when, on the day before the calends of May [30th of April], it was destroyed in the Social War by L. Sulla the legatus, and all that now stands on its site is a single farmhouse. Here also Taurania has ceased to exist, and the remains of Casilinum158 are fast going to ruin. Besides these, we learn from Antias that king L. Tarquinius took Apiolæ159, a town of the Latins, and with its spoils laid the first foundations of the Capitol. From Surrentum160 to the river Silarus161, the former territory of Picentia162 extends for a distance of thirty miles. This belonged to the Etruscans, and was remarkable for the temple of the Argive Juno, founded by Jason163. In it was Picentia, a town164 of the territory of Salernum165.

1 The First Region extended from the Tiber to the Gulf of Salernum, being bounded in the interior by the Apennines. It consisted of ancient Latium and Campania, comprising the modern Campagna di Roma, and the provinces of the kingdom of Naples.

2 Livy, B. i. c. 3, and Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. 1. 389, inform us that the name of Albula was changed into Tiberis in consequence of king Tiberinus being accidentally drowned in it.

3 Still known by that name. The Glanis is called la Chiana.

4 According to D'Anville, now known as Citta di Castello.

5 A municipal town of Umbria, situate near the confluence of the rivers Nar and Tiber, and on the Flaminian Way. There are the ruins of an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and some temples, now the modern Otricoli.

6 The territory of Umbria extended from the left bank of the Tiber, near its rise, to the Adriatic.

7 The Sabines occupied the left bank of the Tiber from the Umbri to the Anio. The Crustumini and the Fidenates probably occupied the southern part of the district about the river Alba.

8 The Nera and the Tevcrone. The exact situation of the district of Vaticanum has not been ascertained with exactness.

9 As not so much causing mischief by its inundations, as giving warning thereby of the wrath of the gods and of impending dangers; which might be arrested by sacrifices and expiatory rites.—See Horace, Odes, B. i. 2. 29.

10 The frontier of ancient Latium was at Circeii, but that of modern Latium extended to Sinuessa.

11 A town of Latium, situate at the foot of the Mons Circeius, now Monte Circello. It was used as a place of retirement, and Tiberius and Domitian had villas there. The Triumvir Lepidus was banished thither by Octavius after his deposition. It was also famous for its oysters, which were of the finest quality. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill called Monte di Citadella, about two miles from the sea.

12 Now the Garigliano, the same river which he previously calls the Glanis. It was the boundary between Latium and Campania.

13 Founded by Ancus Martius, as we learn from Livy. It was abandoned under the Emperor Claudius, who built the Portus Romanus or Portus Augusti in its vicinity; and it only continued famous for its salt-works, which had been established there by Ancus Martius. Its ruins, still called Ostia, are nearly three miles from the coast, in consequence of the receding of the sea.

14 Now San Lorenzo. It was between Ostia and Antium.

15 By some, Æneas was supposed to have been worshiped by that name.

16 Now the river Numico.

17 The ruins of this once great city may still be seen near the present village of the same name. Its situation was peculiarly unhealthy. Another tradition, besides the one mentioned by Pliny, was, that it was founded by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was twenty-four miles distant from Rome.

18 A temple of Venus, of which the ruins are still to be seen.

19 Its few ruins are still known as Anzio Rovinato. It was famous for its temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace, Odes, i. 35. Near the site is the modern village of Porto d'Anzo.

20 This island was occupied by villas of the Roman nobility, and was the resort of Cicero, Augustus and Tiberius. There is still a fortified town called the Torre di Astura.

21 The modern Ninfa.

22 "The Roman Bulwarks." They were thrown up to protect the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Rome from the inroads of the Volscians

23 To our previous note we may add that this spot was supposed to have been once inhabited by the enchantress Circe, the daughter of the Sun, and from her to have taken its name.

24 This has been also translated "dedicated to Nicodorus, the Archon of Athens," but nothing appears to be known of such a fact as the dedication to Nicodorus of any of his works.

25 Now called the "Palude Pontine." They are again mentioned in B. xxvi. c. 9.

26 Now called Il Portatore.

27 It was situate fifty-eight miles from Rome; the modern town of Terracina stands on its site. The remains of the ancient citadel are visible on the slope of Montecchio.

28 The exact site of this place is unknown. Servius, in his Commentary on B. x. of the Æneid, l. 564, tells the same story of the serpents.

29 This was near Amyclæ. A villa was situate there called "Speluncæ," from the cavities in the rock, in one of which the Emperor Tiberius nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof. The modern village of Sperlonga, eight miles west of Gaëta, marks its site.

30 Now Lago di Fondi.

31 Now Gaëta, said to have received its name from being the burial place of Caieta, the nurse of Æneas. The shore was studded with numerous villas of the Roman nobility. It is now a city of great opulence; in its vicinity extensive ruins are to be seen.

32 On the spot now called Mola di Gaëta. Many of the wealthy Romans, and among them Cicero, had villas here: and at this place he was put to death. It was destroyed by the Saracens in the year 856. The remains of antiquity to be seen on this spot are very extensive.

33 Homer places these Cannibals on the coast of Sicily, but the Romans in general transplanted them to the vicinity of Circeii, and suppose Formiæ to have been built by Lamus, one of their kings. It is more probable however that it was founded by the Laconians, from whom it may have received its name of Hormiæ (from the Greek ὅρμος), as being a good roadstead for shipping.

34 Its site is occupied by the present Trajetta. In its marshes, formed by the overflow of the Liris, Caius Marius was taken prisoner, concealed in the sedge.

35 The town of Minturnæ stood on both banks of the river.

36 Its ruins are probably those to be seen in the vicinity of Rocca di Mondragone. It was a place of considerable commercial importance. On its site Livy says there formerly stood the Greek city of Sinope.

37 "Felix illa Campania."

38 Now Sezza.

39 A marshy district of Latium, extending about eight miles along the coast from Terracina to Speluncæ, famous in the time of Horace for the first-rate qualities of its wines.

40 A district famous for its wines, extending from the Massican Hills to the north bank of the Volturnus.

41 According to Hardouin, the town of Calenum was on the site of the present Calvi near Capua.

42 Now called Monte Marsico, and as famous for its wine (called Museatella) as it was in the Roman times.

43 Now Monte Barbaro. The wines of most of these places will be found fully described by Pliny in B. xiv.

44 More fully mentioned, B. xviii. c. 29, where the 'alicæ' or fermenty made from the spelt grown here is again referred to.

45 Of Baiæ, Puteoli, and Stabiæ, for instance.

46 The modern Saove.

47 Now called the Volturno, with a small place on its banks called Castel Volturno.

48 The present village of Torre di Patria is supposed to occupy its site.

49 Strabo describes Cumæ as a joint colony of the Chalcidians of Eubœa and the Cymæans of Æolis. Its sea-shore was covered with villas of the Roman aristocracy, and here Sylla spent the last years of his life. Its site is now utterly desolate and its existing remains inconsiderable.

50 Now Capo or Punta di Miseno; a town built on a promontory of Campania, by Æneas, it was said, in honour of his trumpeter, Misenus, who was drowned there. It was made by Augustus the principal station of the Roman fleet. Here was the villa of Marius, which afterwards belonged to Lucullus and the Emperor Tiberius, who died here.

51 Famous for its warm springs, and the luxurious resort of the Roman patricians. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Cæsar had villas here. In later times it became the seat of every kind of pleasure and dissipation. It is now rendered unwholesome by the Malaria, and the modern Castello di Baja, with numerous ruins, alone marks its site.

52 The modern village of Baolo stands near its site. It was here that Hortensius had his fish-ponds, mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c. 55. It rivalled its neighbour Baiæ in ministering to the luxury of the wealthy Romans, and was occupied by numerous villas so late as the reign of Theodosius.

53 Probably the inner part of the Gulf of Cumæ or Puteoli, but separated from the remainder by an embankment eight stadia in length. It was famous for its oyster-beds. Behind it was the Lake Avernus, occupying the crater of an extinct volcano, and supposed by the Greeks to be the entrance to the Infernal Regions. Agrippa opened a communication with the Lucrine Lake to render Lake Avernus accessible to ships. The Lucrine Lake was filled up by a volcanic eruption in 1538, and a mountain rose in its place. The Lake Avernus is still called the Lago di Averno.

54 Or "the town Cimmerium." Nothing is known of it.

55 Now Pozzuolo. The Romans called it Puteoli, from the strong smell of its mineral springs. There are still many ruins of the ancient town, which was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and as many times rebuilt.

56 Now called Salpatara. This was the name given to the volcanic plain extending from Cumæ to Capua, and supposed to have been once covered with fire; whence the name, from φλέγω, "to burn."

57 Now the Lago di Fusaro. It seems to have had its name from its vicinity to Avernus, the supposed entrance to the infernal regions. Its banks were, in the later times of the Roman republic, adorned with the villas of the wealthy.

58 Neapolis, or the "New City," was founded by the Chalcidians of Cumæ on the site of Parthenope, the supposed burial-place of the Siren of that name. It was so called as being only a 'new quarter' of the neighbouring city of Cumæ. The modern city of Naples stands nearly on its site.

59 Said to have been founded by Hercules. It was on the occasion of its destruction by an eruption of Vesuvius, A.D. 79, that our author unfortunately met his death, a martyr to his thirst for knowledge. Its closer proximity to Vesuvius caused it to be buried under a more solid body of materials ejected from the mountain than was the case with Pompeii; which seems to have been suffocated with ashes, while Herculaneum was covered with volcanic tufa most probably hardened by the agency of water. A few scattered inhabitants are supposed to have afterwards settled upon the site where it was buried, which for many centuries was utterly forgotten, till brought to light in 1738. Part of the site over the buried town is occupied by the villages of Resina and Portici. The works of art found here far exceed in value and interest those discovered at Pompeii.

60 This seems to have been a town of Oscan origin. The first traces of it were found in 1689, but excavations were not commenced till 1721. It perished in the same eruption of Vesuvius as Herculaneum.

61 Now the Sarno. Its course was changed by the great eruption of Vesuvius previously mentioned.

62 The modern Nocera stands on its site. Pompeii was used as its harbour.

63 Now Sorrento.

64 Now also called Capo della Minerva.

65 It probably had its name from Campania, of which it was the capital, and which was so called from its extensive campi or plains. The site of this luxurious and magnificent city is now occupied by the village of Santa Maria di Capoua, the modern city of Capua being on the site of ancient Casilinum. Of ancient Capua there are but few remains. It was made a Roman colony by Julius Cæsar.

66 Originally a city of the Volscians: Cicero had a villa there, and Juvenal and the emperor Pescennius Niger were natives of it. The present Aquino stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of it to be seen.

67 Or Suessa Aurunca, to distinguish it from the Volscian city of Suessa Pometia. The poet Lucilius was a native of it. The modern Sessa stands in its vicinity.

68 The modern Venafri stands near its site. It was famous for the excellence of its olives.

69 On the banks of the Suris, and the most northerly town of the Volsci. The modern Sora is in its vicinity, and the remains of its walls are still to be seen.

70 The modern Teano occupies its site. It was famous for the medicinal springs in its vicinity. There was another Teanum, in Apulia.

71 The town on its site still preserves the name. Bells were made here, whence in the later writers they are called "Nolæ." There is also an ecclesiastical tradition that church bells were first used by Saint Paulinus, bishop of this place, whence they were called 'Campanæ.' The emperor Augustus died here.

72 The remains of the ancient town, of which the ruins are very extensive, are called Avella Vecchia. It was famous for its fruit, especially its filberts, to which it gives name in the French "Avelines." It was first a Greek colony, and then a town of the Oscans.

73 A city of Latium, sixteen miles from Rome, and said to have been of Sicilian origin. The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of its citadel. It was celebrated for the temple and grove of Diana, whose high priest was always a fugitive slave who had killed his predecessor, and was called "Rex nemorensis," or "king of the grove." See Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 59; Art of Love, B. i. 1. 260; and Lucan, B. vi. 1. 74.

74 The ancient city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, king of Rome. The Roman colony here was probably but small. The Roman patrician families, the Julii, Servilii, Tullii, and Quintii, are said to have migrated from Alba Longa, which, according to tradition, had given to Rome her first king.

75 The people of Acerra, still called by the same name; it was plundered and burnt by Hannibal, B.C. 216, but was rebuilt by order of the Roman senate.

76 The people of Allifæ, a former city of Samnium, on the borders of Campania. The modern city of A life, a decayed place, stands on its site. There are considerable remains.

77 The people of Atina, an ancient city of the Volscians. The modern city of Atina, noted for the bleakness of its situation, stands on its site. There are extensive ruins of the ancient city.

78 The people of Aletrium or Alatrium, an ancient city of the Hernici. The modern Alatri stands on its site; there are but few ancient remains.

79 The people of Anagnia in Latium, still called Anagni. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient place, which was of considerable importance.

80 The people of Atella, an ancient city of Campania. Some remains of its ruins are to be seen two miles east of the town of Aversa, near the villages of San Arpino and San Elpidio.

81 The people of Affilæ, an ancient Hernican town. It is still called Affile, and has many ancient remains.

82 The people of Arpinum, once a famous city of the Volscians. The present Arpino occupies its site; there are few Roman remains, but its ancient walls, of Cyclopean construction, still exist. It was the birthplace of Marius and Cicero. The villa of the latter was on the banks of the adjoining river Fibrenus. It was, and is still, famous for its woollen manufactures.

83 The people of Auximum, a city of Picenum. Its site is occupied by the modern Osimo; there are numerous remains of antiquity to be seen.

84 Or perhaps "Abellini," people of Abelliacum; which, if meant, ought not to be included in this division, being a city of the Hirpini. This city was finally destroyed in the wars of the Greeks and Lombards, and the modern Avellino rose on its site. There are considerable ruins in the vicinity. According to Hardouin, this place also claimed the honour of giving name to filberts, which grew abundantly in its vicinity. If such is the case, it seems probable that both it and Abella took their names from that fruit as called by the early inhabitants. See Note in p. 198.

85 An ancient city of Latium. Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the Via Appia. See a curious story connected with it in Ovid's Fasti, B. iii. 1. 667 et seq.

86 There were two cities of this name on the confines of Samnium and Campania, one in the valley of the Volturnum, the modern Caiazzo, the other in Campania, between Capua and Beneventum, whose ruins are probably those to be seen at Le Galazzi, between Caserta and Maddaloni.

87 Once a considerable city of Latium. The modern city of San Germano has risen on its ruins, while the name of Monte Casino has been retained by the monastery founded near it by St. Bernard A.D. 529.

88 The present Calvi probably occupies its site.

89 It is not named in history. Its site was probably between Palestrina and Il Piglio.

90 The people of Cereatæ, a town of Latium. It is supposed that the ancient monastery of Casamari occupied its site.

91 The people of Cora, an ancient city of Latium. The present Cori stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of the ancient walls and other buildings.

92 The people of Castrimœnium, a colony of Sylla. It has been suggested that these were the same people whom Pliny speaks of at a subsequent place in this chapter as the Munienses, an extinct people of Latium. If so, the name was perhaps changed on the establishment here by Sylla of his colony. It probably stood near the modern city of Marino.

93 The people of Cingulum, a city of Picenum, the site of which is occupied by the modern Cingoli.

94 It is conjectured that Fabia was on the same site as the present village of Rocca di Papa.

95 The inhabitants of Forum Popilii in Campania; its site is unknown.

96 The people of Frusino, originally a Volscian city. The modern Frosinone occupies its site.

97 The people of Ferentinum, a city of the Hernici: the present city of Ferentino stands on its site. The ruins are very extensive.

98 Probably the people of Fregellæ, an ancient city of the Volscians. Its site is now unknown, but it was probably on the banks of the Liris, opposite to the modern Ceprano.

99 The people of Fabrateria or Frabateria, a Volscian city. A Roman colony was placed there B.C. 124, by C. Gracchus, and probably the old inhabitants for that reason styled themselves "Veteres." The ruins at San Giovanni in Cerico, about three miles from Falvaterra, are supposed to be those of this place, or at least of the new town or colony. In such case Falvaterra may occupy the site of the original city.

100 The people of Ficulnea or Ficulia, a city of ancient Latium, on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed to have decayed soon after the reign of M. Aurelius. Its site was probably on the modern domain of Cesarini, though some separate the ancient Latin city from the Roman town, and fix the locality of the former on the hill called Monte Gentile, or that of the Torre Lupara.

101 These are omitted in most editions, but if a correct reading, the word must signify the "people of Fregellæ," and the Freginates must be the people of Fregenæ in Etruria; although they do not appear properly to belong to this locality.

102 "The Market of Appius." It was distant forty-three miles from Rome, and we learn from Horace, that it was the usual resting-place for travellers at the end of one day's journey from Rome. It is also mentioned in the account of the journey of St. Paul (Acts xxviii. 15) as one of the usual resting-places on the Appian way. There are now no inhabitants on the spot, but considerable ruins still exist, as well as the forty-third milestone, which is still to be seen.

103 Probably the inhabitants of Ferentium or Ferentinum, now Ferento, five miles from Viterbo, a city of Etruria, of which very considerable remains exist.

104 The people of Gabii, formerly one of the most famous cities of Latium. On its site the ruins of a mediæval fortress now stand, known as Castiglione. Some remains of the walls still exist.

105 The people of Interamna Lirmas, a Roman colony on the banks of the Liris; and as there were several cities of the same name, it was generally distinguished by the epithet "Lirinas." Pliny no doubt calls it "Succasina," from its vicinity to Casinum. Its site, though uninhabited, is still called Terame, and there are numerous remains of antiquity.

106 Probably the people of Lavinium were thus called from their supposed Trojan descent. The town was said to have been founded by Æneas in honour of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. In the times of the Antonines it was united with Laurentum; their ruins are to be seen at Casale di Copocotta.

107 The people of Norba, a town of Latium. It is now called Norma, and there are still some remains of the ancient walls.

108 Nomentum, now called La Mentana, was a Latin town, fourteen miles from Rome.

109 The people of Præneste, one of the most ancient towns of Latium. It was originally a Pelasgic city, but claimed a Greek origin, and was said to have been built by Telegonus, the son of Ulysses. During summer it was much frequented by the Romans for its delightful coolness. The remains of its ancient walls are still to be seen at Palestrina.

110 The people of Privernum, now Piperno, an ancient city of Latium.

111 The people of Setia, now Sesse or Sezza, an ancient town of Latium, to the east of the Pomptine marshes. It was famous for its wine.

112 The people of Signia, now Segni, a town of Latium founded by Tarquinius Priscus. There are still some remains of its walls.

113 The people of Suessula, now Castel di Sessola.

114 The people of Telesia, a town of Samnium seven leagues from Capua, now called Telese.

115 Trebula was distinguished probably by this surname from a town of that name in Samnium. There seem to have been two places of the name in the Sabine territory, but it is not known which is here meant. The ruins of one of them are supposed to be those not far from Maddaloni.

116 The people of Treba, now Trevi, a town of Latium.

117 The people of Tusculum, an ancient town of Latium, the ruins of which are to be seen on a hill about two miles distant from the modern Frascati. Cicero's favourite residence was his Tusculan villa, and Cato the censor was a native of this place.

118 The people of Verulæ, a town of the Hernici, in Latium, now Veroli.

119 The people of Velitræ, an ancient town of the Volsci, now Velletri. It was the birth-place of the emperor Augustus.

120 The people of Ulubræ, a small town of Latium, near the Pomptine Marshes; its site is unknown.

121 The people of Urbinum; there were two places of that name in Umbria, now called Urbeno and Urbania.

122 The name probably by which the city was called in the mystical language of the priesthood. It has been said that this mysterious name of Rome was Valentia; if so, it appears to be only a translation of her name Græcized—῾ρώμη, "strength." This subject will be found again mentioned in B. xxviii. c. 4.

123 Solinus says that he was put to death as a punishment for his rashness. M. Sichel has suggested that this mysterious name was no other than Angerona.

124 It is not known whether this mystical divinity was the goddess of anguish and fear, or of silence, or whether she was the guardian deity of Rome. Julius Modestus says that she relieved men and cattle when visited by the disease called "angina," or "quinsy," whence her name.

125 The Carmental, the Roman, and the Pandanian or Saturnian gates, according to Varro.

126 Titus was saluted Imperator after the siege of Jerusalem, and was associated with his father Vespasian in the government. They also acted together as Censors.

127 The Lares Compitales presided over the divisions of the city, which were marked by the compita or points where two or more streets crossed each other, and where 'ædiculæ' or small chapels were erected in their honour. Statues of these little divinities were erected at the corner of every street. It was probably this custom which first suggested the idea of setting up images of the Virgin and Saints at the corners of the streets, which are still to be seen in many Roman Catholic countries at the present day.

128 This was a gilded column erected by Augustus in the Forum, and called "milliarium aureum;" on it were inscribed the distances of the principal points to which the "viæ" or high-roads conducted.

129 Supposing the circuit of the city to have been as he says, 13 2/5 miles, he must either make a great miscalculation here, or the text must be very corrupt. The average diameter of the city would be in such case about 4 1/2 miles, the average length of each radius drawn from the mile-column 2 1/4 miles, and the total amount 83 1/4 miles, whereas he makes it but 20 3/4 miles, or little better than an average of half-a-mile for each radius. We may also remark that the camp of the Prætorian cohorts here mentioned was established by the emperor Tiberius, by the advice of Sejanus. Ajasson's translation makes the measurement to be made to twelve gates only, but the text as it stands will not admit of such a construction.

130 The Aventine, Cælian, and Quirinal hills.

131 Such as Ocriculum, Tibur, Aricia, &c.

132 Near Antium. Casale di Conca stands on its site.

133 Suæssa Pometia. It was destroyed by the consul Servilius, and its site was said, with that of twenty-two other towns, to have been covered by the Pomptine Marsh, to which it gave its name.

134 A town of Latium destroyed by Ancus Martius.

135 An ancient city of Latium, conquered by Romulus; on which occasion he slew its king Acron and gained the spolia opima. Nibby suggests that it stood on the Magugliano, two miles south-east of Monte Gentile. Holstein says that it stood where the present Sant' Angelo or Monticelli stands.

136 Also destroyed by Ancus Martius. A farm called Dragonello, eleven miles from Rome, is supposed to have stood upon its site. Tellene was also destroyed by the same king. Tifata was a town of Campania.

137 A city of Latium, which was conquered by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that its ruins are visible about a mile to the north of Monte Sant' Angelo.

138 A Sabine town, the people of which were incorporated by Tarquinius Priscus with the Roman citizens. It is supposed to have stood on the present Monte Sant' Angelo.

139 An ancient city of Latium, subdued by Tarquinius Priscus, on which occasion Ocrisia, the mother of Servius Tullius, fell into the hands of the Romans as a captive. It was probably situate on one of the isolated hills that rise from the plain of the Campagna.

140 Both Virgil and Ovid allude to this tradition.

141 Said to have been so called from being "opposite" to the ancient city of Saturnia. The Janiculus or Janiculum was a fortress on the opposite bank of the Tiber, and a suburb of Rome, connected with it by the Sublician bridge.

142 A very ancient city situate three miles from Rome, and said to have been so called from its position on the Tiber, ante amnem. In the time of Strabo it had become a mere village. It stood at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber.

143 An ancient city of Latium reduced by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that the town of Palombara, near the foot of Monte Gennaro, stands on its site.

144 An ancient city of Latium. It probably gradually fell into decay. Lucius Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, is represented as dwelling here during the siege of Ardea. Its site is thought by some to have been at Castellaccio or Castel dell' Osa, and by others at Lunghezza, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture.

145 An ancient city of the Sabines. Its ruins are visible at San Vittorino, a village near Aquila.

146 An ancient town of the Volsci, five leagues from Velletri. Sermonata now stands on its site. It must not be confounded with the town of the Peligni, the birth-place of Ovid.

147 "Populi Albenses." It does not appear to be exactly known what is the force of this expression, but he probably means either colonies from Alba, or else nations who joined in the confederacy of which Alba was the principal. Niebuhr looks upon them as mere demi or boroughs of the territory of Alba.

148 "Accipere carnem." Literally, "to take the flesh." It appears that certain nations, of which Alba was the chief, were in early times accustomed to meet on the Alban Mount for the purposes of sacrifice. The subject is full of obscurity, but it has been suggested that this minor confederacy co-existed with a larger one including all the Latin cities, and there can be little doubt that the common sacrifice was typical of a bond of union among the states that partook therein. It does not necessarily appear from the context that more than the thirty-one states after mentioned took part therein, though the text may be so construed as to imply that the Latin nations previously mentioned also shared in the sacrifice; if so, it would seem to imply that Alba was the chief city of the whole Latin confederacy. See this subject ably discussed in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography, under the article Latini.

149 The people of Æsulæ. Of this Latin city nothing is known. The territory is mentioned by Horace, and Gell places its site on the Monte Affiliano.

150 The people of Bubentum. Nothing is known of this Latin city or of the preceding ones.

151 Bola was an ancient city of Latium, taken successively by Coriolanus and M. Postumius. Its site is supposed to have been five miles from the modern Palestrina, at the modern village of Lugnano.

152 The people of Corioli. It was probably a Latian town, but fell into the possession of the Volsci, from whom it was taken by Cn. Marcius, who thence obtained the name of "Coriolanus." Monte Giove, nineteen miles from Rome, has been suggested as its site.

153 Pliny is supposed to be in error in representing Fidenæ, the early antagonist of Rome, as being extinct in his time, and he will be found in the sequel reckoning it in the Fourth Region. This ancient Latian town never lost its municipal rank, though it had no doubt in his time become a mere country town. The present Castel Giubileo is supposed to be situate on its site.

154 The people of Horta, a town of Etruria, now Horte. Many Etruscan remains have been discovered there.

155 The people of Longula, a Volscian town. Buon Riposo now occupies its site.

156 The people of Pedum; nothing is known of it. The rest of these nations are either almost or entirely unknown.

157 This was an ancient town between Pompeii and Surrentum. After its overthrow, as mentioned by Pliny, it was in some measure rebuilt, possibly after this passage was penned. It was finally destroyed by the great eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79, and it was here that our author breathed his last.

158 A town three miles west of Capua. It was of much importance as a military position, and played a considerable part in the second Punic war. The period of its final destruction is unknown; but modern Capua is built on its site.

159 This city took the lead in the war of the Latin cities against Tarquinius Priscus. Gell and Nibby think that it was situate about eleven miles from Rome, a mile to the south of the Appian way, where there are some remains that indicate the site of an ancient city, near the stream called the Fosso delle Fratocche. Livy tells us that with the spoils thence derived, Tarquinius celebrated the Ludi Magni for the first time.

160 Opposite Capreæ, and situate on the Promontory of Minerva. Sorrento now stands on its site.

161 The modern Silaro; it was the boundary between Lucania and Campania, and rises in the Apennines.

162 A town in the south of Campania, at the head of the Gulf of Pæstum. In consequence of the aid which they gave to Hannibal, the inhabitants were forced to abandon their town and live in the adjoining villages. The name of Picentini was given, as here stated, to the inhabitants of all the territory between the Promontory of Minerva and the river Silarus. They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes, who were transplanted thither after the conquest of Picenum, B.C. 268. The modern Vicenza stands on its site.

163 The Argonaut. Probably this was only a vague tradition.

164 By using the genitive 'Salerni,' he would seem to imply that the Roman colony of Salernum then gave name to the district of which Picentia was the chief town. Ajasson however has translated it merely "Salernum and Picentia." 'Intus' can hardly mean "inland," as Picentia was near the coast, and so was Salernum.

165 This was an ancient town of Campania, at the innermost corner of the Gulf of Pæstum, situate near the coast, on a height at the foot of which lay its harbour. It attained great prosperity, as Salerno, in the middle ages, and was noted for its School of Health established there; which issued periodically rules for the preservation of health in Latin Leonine verse.

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