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Among the medicinal substances, there is the white earth of Chios also, the properties of which are the same as those of Samian earth. It is used more particularly as a cosmetic for the skin of females; the Selinusian1 earth being also employed for a similar purpose. This last is of a milk-white colour, and melts very rapidly in water: dissolved in milk, it is employed for whitening the plaster coats on walls. Pnigitis2 is very similar to Eretrian earth, only that it is found in larger masses, and is of a glutinous consistency. Its effects are similar to those produced by Cimolian3 earth, but are not so energetic.

Ampelitis4 is an earth which bears a strong resemblance to bitumen. The test of its goodness is its dissolving in oil, like wax, and preserving its black colour when submitted to the action of fire. Its properties are emollient and repercussive; for which reason, it is used in medicinal compositions, those known as "calliblephara,"5 more particularly, and in preparations for dyeing the hair.

1 It appears to be a matter of doubt whether it was found at Selinus, in Sicily, or the place of that name in Cilicia. See B. iii. c. 14, and B. v. c. 22.

2 Agricola is of opinion that this earth had its name from the place called Pnigeum, in the Libyan Mareotis. Other commentators would have it to be derived from πνίγω, "to suffocate," such being its effect if taken internally.

3 See the next Chapter.

4 So called from ἀμπέλος, a "vine;" either because it was applied to vines to kill the insects, or because its admixture with the soil was favourable to the cultivation of the vine.

5 "Washes for beautifying the eye-brows." See B. xxi. c. 73, B. xxiii. c. 51, and B. xxxiii. c. 34.

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