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CHAP. 14. (8.)—SICILY.

But more celebrated than all is Sicily, called Sicania by Thucydides, and by many writers Trinacria or Trinacia, from its triangular appearance. According to Agrippa it is 6181 miles in circumference. In former times it was a continuation of the territory of Bruttium, but, in consequence of the overflowing of the sea, became severed from it; thus forming a strait of 15 miles in length, and a mile and a half in width in the vicinity of the Pillar of Rhegium. It was from this circumstance of the land being severed asunder that the Greeks gave the name of Rhegium2 to the town situate on the Italian shore.

In these Straits is the rock of Scylla, as also Charybdis3, a whirlpool of the sea, both of them noted for their perils. Of this triangle, the promontory, which, as we have already4 mentioned, is called Pelorus, faces Scylla and juts out towards Italy, while Pachynum5 extends in the direction of Greece, Peloponnesus being at a distance from it of 440 miles, and Lilybæum6, towards Africa, being distant 180 miles from the promontory of Mercury7, and from that of Caralis in Sardinia 190. These promontories and sides are situate at the following distances from each other: by land it is 186 miles from Pelorus to Pachynum, from Pachynum to Lilybæum 200, and from Lilybæum to Pelorus 1708.

In this island there are five colonies and sixty-three cities or states. Leaving Pelorus and facing the Ionian Sea, we have the town of Messana9, whose inhabitants are also called Mamertini and enjoy the rights of Roman citizens; the promontory of Drepanum10, the colony of Tauromenium11, formerly called Naxos, the river Asines12, and Mount Ætna, wondrous for the flames which it emits by night. Its crater is twenty stadia in circumference, and from it red-hot cinders are thrown as far as Tauromenium and Catina, the noise being heard even at Maroneum13 and the Gemellian Hills. We then come to the three rocks of the Cyclopes14, the Port of Ulysses15, the colony of Catina16, and the rivers Symæthus17 and Terias; while more inland lie the Læstrygonian Plains.

To these rivers succeed the towns of Leontinum18 and Megaris, the river Pantagies19, the colony of Syracuse20, with the fountain of Arethusa21, (the people in the Syracusan ter- ritory drink too of the fountains of Temenitis22, Archidemia, Magæa, Cyane, and Milichie,) the port of Naustathmus23, the river Elorus, and the promontory of Pachynum. This side24 of Sicily begins with the river Hirminius25, then follow the town of Camarina26, the river Gelas27, and the town of Agragas28, which our people have named Agrigentum. We next come to the colony of Thermæ29, the rivers Achates30, Mazara, and Hypsa; the town of Selinus31, and then the Promontory of Lilybæum, which is succeeded by Drepana32, Mount Eryx33, the towns of Panhormus34, Solus35 and Himera36, with a river of the same name, Cephalœdis37, Aluntium38, Agathyrnum, the colony of Tyndaris39, the town of Mylæ40, and then Pelorus, the spot at which we began.

In the interior there are the following towns enjoying Latin privileges, those of the Centuripini41, the Netini42, and the Segestani43; tributary towns are those of the Assorini44, the Ætnenses45, the Agyrini46, the Acestæi, the Acrenses47, the Bidini48, the Cetarini49, the Cacyrini50, the Drepanitani, the Ergetini51, the Echetlienses52, the Erycini53, the Entellini54, the Enini55, the Enguini56, the Gelani57, the Gala- tini58, the Halesini59, the Hennenses, the Hyblenses60, the Herbitenses61, the Herbessenses62, the Herbulenses, the Halicyenses63, the Hadranitani64, the Imacarenses, the Ipanenses, the Ietenses65, the Mytistratini66, the Magellini, the Murgentini67, the Mutycenses68, the Menanini69, the Naxii70, the Noæi71, the Petrini72, the Paropini73, the Phthinthienses74, the Semellitani, the Scherini, the Selinuntii75, the Symæthii, the Talarienses, the Tissinenses76, the Triocalini77, the Tyraci- nenses, and the Zanclæi78, a Messenian colony on the Straits of Sicily. Towards Africa, its islands are Gaulos79, Melita, 87 miles from Camerina, and 113 from Lilybæum, Cosyra80, Hieronnesos81, Cæne82, Galata83, Lopadusa, Æthusa, written by some Ægusa, Bucinna84, Osteodes85, distant from Soluntum 75 miles, and, opposite to Paropus, Ustica.

On this side of Sicily, facing the river Metaurus, at a di- stance of nearly 2586 miles from Italy, are the seven87 islands called the Æolian, as also the Liparæan islands; by the Greeks they are called the Hephæstiades, and by our writers the Vulcanian88 Isles; they are called "Æolian" because in the Trojan times Æolus was king there.

(9.) Lipara89, with a town whose inhabitants enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, is so called from Liparus, a former king who succeeded90 Æolus, it having been previously called Melogonis or Meligunis. It is 25 miles91 distant from Italy, and in circumference a little less. Between this island and Sicily we find another, the name of which was formerly Therasia, but now called Hiera, because it is sacred to Vulcan92: it contains a hill which at night vomits forth flames. The third island is Strongyle93, lying one mile94 to the east of Lipara, over which Æolus reigned as well; it differs only from Lipara in the superior brilliancy of its flames. From the smoke of this volcano it is said that some of the inhabitants are able to predict three days beforehand what winds are about to blow; hence arose the notion that the winds are governed by Æolus. The fourth of these islands is Didyme95, smaller than Lipara, the fifth Ericusa, the sixth Phœnicusa, left to be a pasture-ground for the cattle of the neighbouring islands, and the last and smallest Euonymos. Thus much as to the first great Gulf of Europe.

1 Posidonius, quoted by Strabo, says 550.

2 Meaning that it comes from the Greek verb ῥηλνυμι, "to break." This is probably only a fanciful origin of the name.

3 The present Garofalo. At the present day small boats approach it without danger.

4 In Chap. x. Pelorus is the modern Capo di Faro.

5 Now Capo di Passaro.

6 The present Capo di Boco Marsala.

7 Now Cape Bon. The real distance is but seventy-eight miles.

8 The following are more probably the correct distances: 150, 210, and 230 miles.

9 Now Messina.

10 The modern Capo di Santo Alessio.

11 Now called Taormini; the remains of the ancient town are very considerable.

12 Probably the present Alcantara.

13 The present Madonia and Monte di Mele.

14 Now called I Fariglioni.

15 In modern times called "Lognina Statione," according to Hardouin.

16 The modern city of Catania stands on its site.

17 The Fiume di Santo Leonardo, according to Hardouin, but Mannert says the river Lentini. Ansart suggests the Guarna Lunga.

18 Now Lentini. The ruins of Megaris are still to be seen, according to Mannert.

19 Now the Porcaro.

20 The modern city of Siracosa.

21 See B. xxxi. c. 30, for particulars of this fountain.

22 According to Mirabella, these springs are in modern times called Fonte di Canali, Cefalino, Fontana della Maddalena, Fonte Ciane, and Lampismotta.

23 The modern Fonte Bianche. The Elorus, according to Hardouin, is the modern Acellaro, according to Mannert, the Abisso.

24 The southern side.

25 Now the Maulo, or Fiume di Ragusa.

26 Still called Camarina. Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city now remain.

27 According to Hardouin the Fiume Salso; but according to D'Anville and Mannert, the Fiume Ghiozzo.

28 Now Girgenti. Gigantic remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

29 See note 15 in this page.

30 The Achates is the modern Belice, the Mazara retains its name, and the Hypsa is now the Marsala.

31 So called by the Greeks from its abundant growth of parsley, called by them σέλινον. Its remains are still to be seen at the spot called Selenti.

32 Now Trapani. Some vestiges of its ancient mole are to be seen.

33 The present Monte San Juliano.

34 The great city of Palermo stands on its site. It was founded by the Phœnicians.

35 The modern Solunto.

36 Himera was destroyed by the Carthaginians, B.C. 408, upon which its inhabitants founded Thermæ, so called from its hot springs. This was probably the colony of Thermæ mentioned above by Pliny, though wrongly placed by him on the southern coast between Selinus and Agrigentum. The modern town of Termini stands on the site of Thermæ; remains of its baths and aqueduct are still to be seen. Himera stood on a river of the same name, most probably the present Fiume Grande, and Fazello is of opinion that the town was situate on the site now occupied by the Torre di Bonfornello. Himera was the birthplace of the poet Stesichorus.

37 Or Cæphalœdium. Some remains of it are to be seen at the spot called Cefalu.

38 Probably on the site now occupied by the town of San Marco. Fazello and Cluver however place Aluntium near San Filadelfo, where some ruins were formerly visible, and regard San Marco as the site of Agathyrna or Agathyrnum.

39 Probably situate near the church of Santa Maria at Tindari, now the Capo di Mongioio.

40 Now called Melazzo.

41 Their city was Centuripa, on a hill S.W. of Ætna. The modern Centorbi occupies its site, and some of its ruins may still be seen.

42 Netum probably stood on the spot now known as Noto Anticho.

43 The ruins of Segesta are supposed to be those near the river San Bartolomeo, twelve miles south of Alcamo.

44 Asaro occupies its site.

45 A people dwelling at the foot of Mount Ætna, according to D'Anville, at a place now called Nicolosi.

46 The people of Agyrium; the site of which is now called San Filippo d'Argiro. Diodorus Siculus was a native of this place.

47 Acræ occupied a bleak hill in the vicinity of the modern Pallazolo, where its ruins are still to be seen.

48 Their town was Bidis near Syracuse. The modern Bibino or San Giovanni di Bidini is supposed to stand on its site.

49 The people of Cetaria, between Panormus and Drepanum. Its site is unknown.

50 The people of Cacyrum, supposed to have stood on the site of the modern Cassaro. The Drepanitani were so called from living on the promontory of Drepanum.

51 The ruins near La Cittadella are probably those of Ergetium.

52 The people of Echetla. According to Faziello and Cluver its ruins were those to be seen at the place called Occhiala or Occhula, two miles from the town of Gran Michele.

53 The inhabitants of the city of Eryx, on the mountain of that name, now San Giuliano. The ancient city stood probably half-way down the mountain.

54 The town of Entella survived till the thirteenth century, when it was destroyed by the Emperor Frederic II. The ruins were formerly to be seen near Poggio la Reale.

55 Perhaps the people of Enna, once a famous city. According to the story as related by Ovid and Claudian, it was from this spot that Proserpine was carried off by Pluto. It stood on the same site as the town of Castro Giovanni. This note may however be more applicable to the Hennenses, mentioned below.

56 The ruins of Enguinum are probably those in the vicinity of the modern town of Gangi.

57 The people of Gela, one of the most important cities of Sicily. Its site was probably the modern Terranova, near the river Fiume di Terranova.

58 The people probably of Galata or Galaria; on the site of which the modern village of Galata is supposed to stand.

59 The people probably, of Halesa; its ruins are supposed to be those near the village of Tysa, near the river Pettineo.

60 The people of Hybla. There were three cities of this name in Sicily, the Greater, the Less, and Hybla Megara. The name was probably derived from the local divinity mentioned by Pausanias as being so called.

61 The people of Herbita; the site of which was probably at Nicosia, or else at Sperlinga, two miles south of it.

62 There were two places in Sicily known as Herbessus or Erbessusone near Agrigentum, the other about sixteen miles from Syracuse, on the site, it is supposed, of the present Pantalica.

63 The people of Halicyæ, in the west of Sicily. The modern town of Salemi is supposed to occupy its site.

64 The people of Adranum or Hadranum, a town famous for its temple of the Sicilian deity Adranus. Its site is occupied by the modern town of Aderno. The ruins are very considerable.

65 The people of Ietæ; the site of which town is said by Fazello to be the modern Iato. The sites of the places previously mentioned cannot be identified.

66 The site of their town is situate at the modern Mistretta, where some ruins are still to be seen.

67 The site of their town was probably the present village of Mandri Bianchi on the river Dittaino.

68 Probably the people of Motuca, mentioned by Ptolemy, now Modica.

69 Their town probably stood on the site of the present Mineo.

70 It has been suggested that these are the same as the people of Tauromenium, said to have been a Naxian colony.

71 They are supposed to have dwelt on the site of the present Noara.

72 The ruins of the town of Petra are supposed to have been those to be seen near Castro Novo, according to Mannert.

73 Fazello is of opinion that the present Colisano occupies the site of the ancient Paropus.

74 The city of Phthinthias was peopled by the inhabitants of Gela, by command of Phthinthias the despot of Agrigentum. Its ruins are probably those seen in the vicinity of the modern Alicata.

75 The people of Selinus previously mentioned in p. 218.

76 Randazzo, at the foot of Ætna, is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Tissa.

77 The people of Triocala, now Troccoli, near Calata Bellota.

78 Zancle was the ancient Greek name of Messina, which was so called from its similarity in shape to a sickle. The Messenian colony of the Zanclæi probably dwelt in its vicinity.

79 Gaulos is the present Gozo, and Melita the important island of Malta. The distance here mentioned is in reality only sixty-one miles from Camerina.

80 Now Pantellaria.

81 The modern island of Maretimo.

82 Probably the present island of Limosa.

83 Galata still has the name of Calata, Lopadusa is the present Lam- pedosa, and Æthusa, according to Mannert, is called Favignana.

84 Now Levanzo.

85 According to Mannert, this is the island Alicur, to the west of the Æolian or Liparian islands. Ustica still retains its ancient name.

86 The least distance between these localities is forty-five miles.

87 There are now eleven, some of which are supposed to have risen from the sea since the time of Pliny.

88 From Vulcan the god of fire, the Greek Hephaestus.

89 Now called the Great Lipara.

90 According to Solinus, c. vi., Æolus succeeded him. Its name Me- logonis was by some ascribed to its great produce of honey.

91 The shortest distance between these localities is forty-six miles.

92 Now called Volcano.

93 Now Strongoli and Stromboli. It is the only one of these mountains that is continually burning. Notwithstanding the dangers of their locality, this island is inhabited by about fifty families.

94 Strabo makes the same mistake; the distance is twenty miles.

95 According to Hardouin and D'Anville this is the modern Saline, but Mannert says Panaria. The geographers differ in assigning their ancient names to the other three, except that Euonymos, from its name, the "lefthand" island, is clearly the modern Lisca Bianca.

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