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I HAVE now given at considerable length an account of the nature of metals, which constitute our wealth, and of the substances that are derived from them; so connecting my various subjects, as, at the same time, to describe an immense number of medicinal compositions which they furnish, the mysteries1 thrown upon them by the druggists, and the tedious minutiæ of the arts of chasing,2 and statuary,3 and of dyeing.4 It remains for me to describe the various kinds of earths and stones; a still more extensive series of subjects, each of which has been treated of, by the Greeks more particularly, in a great number of volumes. For my own part, I propose to employ a due degree of brevity, at the same time omitting nothing that is necessary or that is a product of Nature.

I shall begin then with what still remains to be said with reference to painting, an art which was formerly illustrious, when it was held in esteem both by kings and peoples, and ennobling those whom it deigned to transmit to posterity. But at the present day, it is completely banished in favour of marble, and even gold. For not only are whole walls now covered with marble, but the marble itself is carved out or else marqueted so as to represent objects and animals of various kinds. No longer now are we satisfied with formal compartitions of marble, or with slabs extended like so many mountains in our chambers, but we must begin to paint the very stone itself! This art was invented in the reign of Claudius, but it was in the time of Nero that we discovered the method of inserting in marble spots that do not belong to it, and so varying its uniformity; and this, for the purpose of representing the marble of Numidia5 variegated with ovals, and that of Synnada6 veined with purple; just, in fact, as luxury might have willed that Nature should produce them. Such are our resources when the quarries fail us, and luxury ceases not to busy itself, in order that as much as possible may be lost whenever a conflagration happens.


Correct portraits of individuals were formerly transmitted to future ages by painting; but this has now completely fallen into desuetude. Brazen shields are now set up, and silver faces, with only some obscure traces of the countenance:7 the very heads, too, of statues are changed,8 a thing that has given rise before now to many a current sarcastic line; so true it is that people prefer showing off the valuable material, to having a faithful likeness. And yet, at the same time, we tapestry the walls of our galleries with old pictures, and we prize the portraits of strangers; while as to those made in honour of ourselves, we esteem them only for the value of the material, for some heir to break up and melt, and so forestall the noose and slip-knot of the thief.9 Thus it is that we possess the portraits of no living individuals, and leave behind us the pictures of our wealth, not of our persons.

And yet the very same persons adorn the palæstra and the anointing-room10 with portraits of athletes, and both hang up in their chamber and carry about them a likeness of Epicurus.11 On the twentieth day of each moon they celebrate his birthday12 by a sacrifice, and keep his festival. known as the "Icas,"13 every month: and these too, people who wish to live without being known!14 So it is, most assuredly, our indolence has lost sight of the arts, and since our minds are destitute of any characteristic features, those of our bodies are neglected also.

But on the contrary, in the days of our ancestors, it was these that were to be seen in their halls, and not statues made by foreign artists, or works in bronze or marble: portraits modelled in wax15 were arranged, each in its separate niche, to be always in readiness to accompany the funeral processions of the family;16 occasions on which every member of the family that had ever existed was always present. The pedigree, too, of the individual was traced in lines upon each of these coloured portraits. Their muniment-rooms,17 too, were filled with archives and memoirs, stating what each had done when holding the magistracy. On the outside, again, of their houses, and around the thresholds of their doors, were placed other statues of those mighty spirits, in the spoils of the enemy there affixed, memorials which a purchaser even was not allowed to displace; so that the very house continued to triumph even after it had changed its master. A powerful stimulus to emulation this, when the walls each day reproached an unwarlike owner for having thus intruded upon the triumphs of another! There is still extant an address by the orator Messala, full of indignation, in which he forbids that there should be inserted among the images of his family any of those of the stranger race of the Lævini.18 It was the same feeling, too, that extorted from old Messala those compilations of his "On the Families of Rome;" when, upon passing through the hall of Scipio Pomponianus,19 he observed that, in consequence of a testamentary adoption, the Salvittos20 —for that had been their surname—to the disgrace of the Africani, had surreptitiously contrived to assume the name of the Scipios. But the Messalas must pardon me if I remark, that to lay a claim, though an untruthful one, to the statues of illustrious men, shows some love for their virtues, and is much more honourable than to have such a character as to merit that no one should wish to claim them.

There is a new invention too, which we must not omit to notice. Not only do we consecrate in our libraries, in gold or silver, or at all events, in bronze, those whose immortal spirits hold converse with us in those places, but we even go so far as to reproduce the ideal of features, all remembrance of which has ceased to exist; and our regrets give existence to likenesses that have not been transmitted to us, as in the case of Homer, for example.21 And indeed, it is my opinion, that nothing can be a greater proof of having achieved success in life, than a lasting desire on the part of one's fellow-men, to know what one's features were. This practice of grouping portraits was first introduced at Rome by Asinius Pollio, who was also the first to establish a public library, and so make the works of genius the property of the public. Whether the kings of Alexandria and of Pergamus, who had so energetically rivalled each other in forming libraries, had previously introduced this practice, I cannot so easily say.

That a strong passion for portraits formerly existed, is attested both by Atticus, the friend of Cicero, who wrote a work on this subject,22 and by M. Varro, who conceived the very liberal idea of inserting, by some means23 or other, in his numerous volumes, the portraits of seven hundred individuals; as he could not bear the idea that all traces of their features should be lost, or that the lapse of centuries should get the better of mankind. Thus was he the inventor of a benefit to his fellow-men, that might have been envied by the gods themselves; for not only did he confer upon them immortality, but he transmitted them, too, to all parts of the earth; so that everywhere it might be possible for them to be present, and for each to occupy his niche. This service, too, Varro conferred upon persons who were no members of his own family.


So far as I can learn, Appius Claudius, who was consul with P. Servilius, in the year of the City, 259, was the first to dedicate shields24 in honour of his own family in a sacred or public place.25 For he placed representations of his ancestors in the Temple of Bellona, and desired that they might be erected in an elevated spot, so as to be seen, and the inscriptions reciting their honours read. A truly graceful device; more particularly when a multitude of children, represented by so many tiny figures, displays those germs, as it were, which are destined to continue the line: shields such as these, no one can look at without a feeling of pleasure and lively interest.


More recently, M. Æmilius, who was consul26 with Quintus Lutatius, not only erected these shields in the Æmilian Basilica,27 but in his own house as well; in doing which he followed a truly warlike example. For, in fact, these portraits were represented on bucklers, similar to those used in the Trojan War;28 and hence it is that these shields received their present name of "clypei," and not, as the perverse subtleties of the grammarians will have it, from the word "cluo."29 It was an abundant motive for valour, when upon each shield was represented the features of him who had borne it. The Carthaginians used to make both their bucklers and their portraits of gold, and to carry them with them in the camp: at all events, Marcius, the avenger of the Scipios30 in Spain, found one of this kind on capturing the camp of Hasdrubal, and it was this same buckler that remained suspended over the gate of the Capitoline Temple until the time when it was first burnt.31 Indeed, in the days of our ancestors, so assured was the safety of these shields, that it has been a subject of remark, that in the consulship of L. Manlius and Q. Fulvius, in the year of the City, 575, M. Aufidius, who had given security for the safety of the Capitol, informed the senate that the bucklers there which for some lustra32 had been assessed as copper, were in reality made of silver.


We have no certain knowledge as to the commencement of the art of painting, nor does this enquiry fall under our consideration. The Egyptians assert that it was invented among themselves, six thousand years before it passed into Greece; a vain boast, it is very evident.33 As to the Greeks, some say that it was invented at Sicyon, others at Corinth; but they all agree that it originated in tracing lines round the human shadow.34 The first stage of the art, they say, was this, the second stage being the employment of single colours; a process known as "monochromaton,"35 after it had become more complicated, and which is still in use at the present day. The invention of line-drawing has been assigned to Philocles, the Egyptian, or to Cleanthes36 of Corinth. The first who practised this line-drawing were Aridices, the Corinthian, and Telephanes, the Sicyonian, artists who, without making use of any colours, shaded the interior of the outline by drawing lines;37 hence, it was the custom with them to add to the picture the name of the person represented. Ecphantus, the Corinthian, was the first to employ colours upon these pictures, made, it is said, of broken earthenware, reduced to powder. We shall show on a future38 occasion, that it was a different artist of the same name, who, according to Cornelius Nepos, came to Italy with Demaratus, the father of the Roman king, Tarquinius Priscus, on his flight from Corinth to escape the violence of the tyrant Cypselus.


But already, in fact, had the art of painting been perfectly developed in Italy.39 At all events, there are extant in the temples at Ardea, at this day, paintings of greater antiquity than Rome itself; in which, in my opinion, nothing is more marvellous, than that they should have remained so long unprotected by a roof, and yet preserving their freshness.40 At Lanuvium, too, it is the same, where we see an Atalanta and a Helena, without drapery, close together, and painted by the same artist. They are both of the greatest beauty, the former being evidently the figure of a virgin, and they still remain uninjured, though the temple is in ruins. The Emperor Caius,41 inflamed with lustfulness, attempted to have them removed, but the nature of the plaster would not admit of it. There are in existence at Cære,42 some paintings of a still higher antiquity. Whoever carefully examines them, will be forced to admit that no art has arrived more speedily at perfection, seeing that it evidently was not in existence at the time of the Trojan War.43


Among the Romans, too, this art very soon rose into esteem, for it was from it that the Fabii, a most illustrious family, derived their surname of "Pictor;" indeed the first of the family who bore it, himself painted the Temple of Salus,44 in the year of the City, 450; a work which lasted to our own times, but was destroyed when the temple was burnt, in the reign of Claudius. Next in celebrity were the paintings of the poet Pacuvius, in the Temple of Hercules, situate in the Cattle Market:45 he was a son of the sister of Ennius, and the fame of the art was enhanced at Rome by the success of the artist on the stage. After this period, the art was no longer practised by men of rank; unless, indeed, we would make reference to Turpilius, in our own times, a native of Venetia, and of equestrian rank, several of whose beautiful works are still in existence at Verona. He painted, too, with his left hand, a thing never known to have been done by any one before.46

Titidius Labeo, a person of prætorian rank, who had been formerly proconsul of the province of Gallia Narbonensis, and who lately died at a very advanced age, used to pride himself upon the little pictures which he executed, but it only caused him to be ridiculed and sneered at. I must not omit, too, to mention a celebrated consultation upon the subject of painting, which was held by some persons of the highest rank.

Q. Pedius,47 who had been honoured with the consulship and a triumph, and who had been named by the Dictator Cæsar as co-heir with Augustus, had a grandson, who being dumb from his birth, the orator Messala, to whose family his grandmother belonged, recommended that he should be brought up as a painter, a proposal which was also approved of by the late Emperor Augustus. He died, however, in his youth, after having made great progress in the art. But the high estimation in which painting came to be held at Rome, was principally due, in my opinion, to M. Valerius Maximus Messala, who, in the year of the City, 490, was the first to exhibit a painting to the public; a picture, namely, of the battle in which he had defeated the Carthaginians and Hiero in Sicily, upon one side of the Curia Hostilia.48 The same thing was done, too, by L. Scipio,49 who placed in the Capitol a painting of the victory which he had gained in Asia; but his brother Africanus, it is said, was offended at it, and not without reason, for his son had been taken prisoner in the battle.50 Lucius Hostilius Mancinus,51 too, who had been the first to enter Carthage at the final attack, gave a very similar offence to Æmilianus,52 by exposing in the Forum a painting of that city and the attack upon it, he himself standing near the picture, and describing to the spectators the various details of the siege; a piece of complaisance which secured him the consulship at the ensuing Comitia.

The stage, too, which was erected for the games celebrated by Claudius Pulcher,53 brought the art of painting into great admiration, it being observed that the ravens were so deceived by the resemblance, as to light upon the decorations which were painted in imitation of tiles.


The high estimation in which the paintings of foreigners were held at Rome commenced with Lucius Mummius, who, from his victories, acquired the surname of "Achaicus." For upon the sale of the spoil on that occasion, King Attalus having purchased, at the price of six thousand denarii, a painting of Father Liber by Aristides,54 Mummius, feeling surprised at the price, and suspecting that there might be some merit in it of which he himself was unaware,55 in spite of the complaints of Attalus, broke off the bargain, and had the picture placed in the Temple of Ceres;56 the first instance, I conceive, of a foreign painting being publicly exhibited at Rome.

After this, I find, it became a common practice to exhibit foreign pictures in the Forum; for it was to this circumstance that we are indebted for a joke of the orator Crassus. While pleading below the Old Shops,57 he was interrupted by a witness who had been summoned, with the question, "Tell me then, Crassus, what do you take me to be?" "Very much like him," answered he, pointing to the figure of a Gaul in a picture, thrusting out his tongue in a very unbecoming manner.58 It was in the Forum, too, that was placed the picture of the Old Shepherd leaning on his staff; respecting which, when the envoy of the Teutones was asked what he thought was the value of it, he made answer that he would rather not have the original even, at a gift.


But it was the Dictator Cæsar that first brought the public exhibition of pictures into such high estimation, by consecrating an Ajax and a Medea59 before the Temple of Venus Genetrix.60 After him there was M. Agrippa, a man who was naturally more attached to rustic simplicity than to refinement. Still, however, we have a magnificent oration of his, and one well worthy of the greatest of our citizens, on the advantage of exhibiting in public all pictures and statues; a practice which would have been far preferable to sending them into banishment at our country-houses. Severe as he was in his tastes, he paid the people of Cyzicus twelve hundred thousand sesterces for two paintings, an Ajax and a Venus. He also ordered small paintings to be set in marble in the very hottest part of his Warm Baths;61 where they remained until they were removed a short time since, when the building was repaired.


The late Emperor Augustus did more than all the others; for he placed in the most conspicuous part of his Forum, two pictures, representing War and Triumph.62 He also placed in the Temple of his father,63 Cæsar, a picture of the Castors,64 and one of Victory, in addition to those which we shall mention in our account of the works of the different artists.65 He also inserted two pictures in the wall of the Curia66 which he consecrated in the Comitium;67 one of which was a Nemea68 seated upon a lion, and bearing a palm in her hand. Close to her is an Old Man, standing with a staff, and above his head hangs the picture of a chariot with two horses. Nicias69 has written upon this picture that he "inburned"70 it, such being the word he has employed.

In the second picture the thing to be chiefly admired, is the resemblance that the youth bears to the old man his father, allowing, of course, for the difference in age; above them soars an eagle, which grasps a dragon in its talons. Philochares71 attests that he is the author of this work, an instance, if we only consider it, of the mighty power wielded by the pictorial art; for here, thanks to Philochares, the senate of the Roman people, age after age, has before its eyes Glaucion and his son Aristippus, persons who would otherwise have been altogether unknown. The Emperor Tiberius, too, a prince who was by no means very gracious, has exhibited in the temple dedicated by him, in his turn, to Augustus, several pictures which we shall describe hereafter.72


Thus much then with reference to the dignity of this now expiring art. We have already73 stated with what single colours the earlier artists painted, when speaking of these pigments under the head of metals. The new modes of painting which were afterwards discovered, and are known as "neogrammatea,"74 the names of the artists, their different inventions, and the periods at which these inventions were adopted, will all be described when we come to enumerate the painters: for the present, however, the proposed plan of this work requires, that I should enlarge upon the nature of the several colours that are employed.

The art of painting at last became developed, in the inven- tion of light and shade, the alternating contrast of the colours serving to heighten the effect of each. At a later period, again, lustre75 was added, a thing altogether different from light. The gradation between lustre and light on the one hand and shade on the other, was called "tonos;" while the blending of the various tints, and their passing into one another, was known as "harmoge."76


Colours are either77 sombre or florid, these qualities arising either from the nature of the substances or their mode of combination. The florid colours are those which the employer supplies78 to the painter at his own expense; minium,79 namely, armenium, cinnabaris,80 chrysocolla,81 indicum, and purpurissum. The others are the sombre colours. Taking both kinds together, some are native colours, and others are artificial. Sinopis, rubrica, parætonium, melinum, cretria and orpiment, are native colours. The others are artificial, more particularly those described by us when speaking of metals; in addition to which there are, among the more common colours, ochra, usta or burnt ceruse, sandarach, sandyx, syricum, and atramentum.


Sinopis82 was discovered in Pontus; and hence its name, from the city of Sinope there. It is produced also in Egypt, the Balearic islands, and Africa; but the best is found in Lemnos and Cappadocia, being extracted from quarries there. That part is considered the best which has been found adhering to the rock. In the native mass, it has its own proper colour within, but is spotted on the exterior; the ancients made use of it for tone.83

There are three kinds of sinopis, the red, the pale red, and the intermediate. The price of the best is twelve denarii per pound; it is used both for painting with the brush, and for colouring wood. The kind which comes from Africa sells at eight asses per pound; the name given to it is "cicerculum."84 That85 which is of the deepest red is the most in use for colouring compartitions. The sinopis known as the dull86 kind, being of a very tawny complexion, sells also at the price of eight asses per pound; it is used principally for the lower87 parts of compartitions.

Used medicinally, sinopis is of a soothing nature, and is employed as an ingredient in plasters and emollient poultices. It admits of being easily used, whether in the form of a dry or of a liquid composition, for the cure of ulcers situate in the humid parts of the body, the mouth and the rectum, for instance. Used as an injection, it arrests looseness of the bowels, and, taken in doses of one denarius, it acts as a check upon female discharges. Applied in a burnt state, with wine in particular, it has a desiccative effect upon granulations of the eyelids.


Some persons have wished to make out that sinopis is nothing else but a kind of rubrica88 of second-rate quality, looking upon earth of Lemnos as a rubrica of the highest quality. This last approaches very nearly to minium,89 and was as highly esteemed among the ancients as the island that produces it: it was never sold except in sealed packages, a circumstance to which it was indebted for its additional name of "sphragis." It is with this material that they give the undercoating to minium, in the adulteration of which it is also extensively employed.

In medicine it is very highly esteemed. Applied to the eyes in the form of a liniment, it allays defluxions and pains in those organs, and arrests the discharges from lachrymal fistulas. To persons vomiting blood, it is administered with vinegar to drink. It is taken also internally for affections of the spleen and kidneys; and by females for the purpose of arresting flooding. It is employed too, to counteract the effects of poisons, and of stings inflicted by sea or land serpents; hence it is that it is so commonly used as an ingredient in antidotes.


Of the other kinds of rubrica, those of Egypt and Africa are of the greatest utility to workers in wood, from the fact of their being absorbed with the greatest rapidity. They are used also for painting, and are found in a native state in iron-mines.90


It is from rubrica also, that ochra91 is prepared, the rubrica being burnt92 in new earthen pots well luted with clay. The more highly it is calcined in the furnace, the better the colour is. All kinds of rubrica are of a desiccative nature, and hence it is that they are so useful for plasters, and as an application even for erysipelas.


Half a pound of Pontic sinopis, ten pounds of bright sil,93 and two pounds of Greek melinum,94 well mixed and triturated together for twelve successive days, produce "leucophoron,"95 a cement used for applying gold-leaf to wood.


Parætonium96 is so called from the place97 of that name in Egypt. It is sea-foam,98 they say, solidified with slime, and hence it is that minute shells are often found in it. It is prepared also in the Isle of Crete, and at Cyrenæ. At Rome, it is adulterated with Cimolian99 earth, boiled and thickened. The price of that of the highest quality is fifty denarii per six pounds. This is the most unctuous of all the white colours, and the most tenacious as a coating for plaster, the result of its smoothness.


Melinum, too, is a white colour, the best being the produce of the Isle of Melos.100 It is found also in Samos; but this last kind is never used by painters, in consequence of its being too unctuous. The persons employed in extracting it, lie at full length upon the ground, and search for the veins among the rocks. In medicine it is employed for much the same purposes as eretria;101 in addition to which, it dries the tongue, acts as a depilatory, and has a soothing effect. The price of it is one sestertius per pound.

The third of the white pigments is ceruse, the nature of which we have already102 explained when speaking of the ores of lead; there was also a native ceruse, formerly found on the lands of Theodotus at Smyrna, which the ancients made use of for painting ships. At the present day, all ceruse is prepared artificially, from lead and viuegar,103 as already stated.


Usta104 was accidentally discovered at a fire in the Piræus, some ceruse having been burnt in the jars there. Nicias, the artist above-mentioned,105 was the first to use it. At the present day, that of Asia, known also as "purpurea," is considered the best. The price of it is six denarii per pound. It is prepared also at Rome by calcining marbled sil,106 and quenching it with vinegar. Without the use of usta shadows cannot be made.107


Eretria takes its name from the territory108 which produces it. Nicomachus109 and Parrhasius made use of it. In a medicinal point of view, it is cooling and emollient. In a calcined state, it promotes the cicatrization of wounds, is very useful as a desiccative, and is particularly good for pains in the head, and for the detection of internal suppurations. If the earth, when applied110 with water, does not dry with rapidity, the presence of purulent matter is apprehended.


According to Juba, sandarach and ochra are both of them productions of the island of Topazus,111 in the Red Sea; but neither of them are imported to us from that place. The mode of preparing sandarach we have described112 already: there is a spurious kind also, prepared by calcining ceruse in the furnace. This substance, to be good, ought to be of a flame colour; the price of it is five asses per pound.


Calcined with an equal proportion of rubrica, sandarach forms sandyx;113 although I perceive that Virgil, in the following line,114 has taken sandyx to be a plant—
"Sandyx itself shall clothe the feeding lambs."

The price of sandyx115 is one half that of sandarach; these two colours being the heaviest of all in weight.


Among the artificial colours, too, is syricum, which is used as an under-coating for minium, as already116 stated. It is prepared from a combination of sinopis with sandyx.


Atramentum,117 too, must be reckoned among the artificial colours, although it is also derived in two ways from the earth. For sometimes it is found exuding from the earth like the brine of salt-pits, while at other times an earth itself of a sulphurous colour is sought for the purpose. Painters, too, have been known to go so far as to dig up half-charred bones118 from the sepulchres for this purpose.

All these plans, however, are new-fangled and troublesome; for this substance may be prepared, in numerous ways, from the soot that is yielded by the combustion of resin or pitch; so much so, indeed, that manufactories have been built on the principle of not allowing an escape for the smoke evolved by the process. The most esteemed black,119 however, that is made in this way, is prepared from the wood of the torch-pine.

It is adulterated by mixing it with the ordinary soot from furnaces and baths, a substance which is also employed for the purpose of writing. Others, again, calcine dried wine-lees, and assure us that if the wine was originally of good quality from which the colour is made, it will bear comparison with that of indicum.120 Polygnotus and Micon, the most celebrated painters of Athens, made their black from grape-husks, and called it "tryginon."121 Apelles invented a method of preparing it from burnt ivory, the name given to it being "elephantinon."

We have indicum also, a substance imported from India, the composition of which is at present unknown to me.122 Dyers, too, prepare an atramentum from the black inflorescence which adheres to the brazen dye-pans. It is made also from logs of torch-pine, burnt to charcoal and pounded in a mortar. The sæpia, too, has a wonderful property of secreting a black liquid;123 but from this liquid no colour is prepared. The preparation of every kind of atramentum is completed by exposure to the sun; the black, for writing, having an admixture of gum, and that for coating walls, an admixture of glue. Black pigment that has been dissolved in vinegar is not easily effaced by washing.


Among the remaining colours which, as already stated,124 owing to their dearness are furnished by the employer, purpurissum holds the highest rank. For the purpose of preparing it, argentaria or silver chalk125 is dyed along with purple126 cloth, it imbibing the colour more speedily than the wool. The best of all is that which, being thrown the very first into the boiling cauldron, becomes saturated with the dye in its primitive state. The next best in quality is that which has been put into the same liquor, after the first has been removed. Each time that this is done, the quality becomes proportionally deteriorated, owing, of course, to the comparative thinness of the liquid. The reason that the purpurissum of Puteoli is more highly esteemed than that of Tyre, Gætulia, or Laconia, places which produce the most precious kinds of purple, is the fact that it combines more readily with hysginum,127 and that it is made to absorb the colouring liquid of madder. The worst purpurissum is that of Lanuvium.128

The price of purpurissum is from one to thirty denarii per pound. Persons who use it in painting, place a coat of sandyx beneath; a layer on which of purpurissum with glair of egg, produces all the brilliant tints of minium. If, on the other hand, it is their object to make a purple, they lay a coat of cæruleum129 beneath, and purpurissum, with egg,130 upon it.


Next in esteem to this is indicum,131 a production of India, being a slime132 which adheres to the scum upon the reeds there. When powdered, it is black in appearance, but when diluted in water it yields a marvellous combination of purple and cæruleum. There is another133 kind, also, which floats upon the surface of the pans in the purple dye-houses, being the scum which rises upon the purple dye. Persons who adulterate it, stain pigeons' dung with genuine indicum, or else colour Selinusian134 earth, or anularian135 chalk with woad.

The proper way of testing indicum is by laying it on hot coals, that which is genuine producing a fine purple flame, and emitting a smell like that of sea-water while it smokes: hence it is that some are of opinion that it is gathered from the rocks on the sea-shore. The price of indicum is twenty denarii per pound. Used medicinally, it alleviates cold shiverings and defluxions, and acts as a desiccative upon sores.


Armenia sends us the colouring substance which is known to us by its name.136 This also is a mineral, which admits of being dyed, like chrysocolla,137 and is best when it most closely resembles that substance, the colour being pretty much that of cæruleum. In former times it was sold at thirty sesterces per pound; but there has been found of late in the Spanish provinces a sand which admits of a similar preparation, and consequently armenium has come to be sold so low as at six denarii per pound. It differs from cæruleum in a certain degree of whiteness, which causes the colour it yields to be thinner in comparison. The only use made of it in medicine is for the purpose of giving nourishment to the hair, that of the eyelids in particular.


There are also two colours of very inferior quality, which have been recently discovered. One of these is the green known as "appianum,"138 a fair imitation of chrysocolla; just as though we had not had to mention sufficient of these counterfeits already. This colour, too, is prepared from a green chalk, the usual price of it being one sesterce per pound.


The other colour is that known as "anularian139 white;" being used for giving a brilliant whiteness to the figures of females.140 This, too, is prepared from a kind of chalk, combined with the glassy paste which the lower classes wear in their rings:141 hence it is, that it has the name "anulare."


Those among the colours which require a dry, cretaceous, coating,142 and refuse to adhere to a wet surface, are purpurissum, indicum, cæruleum,143 melinum, orpiment, appianum, and ceruse. Wax, too, is stained with all these colouring substances for encaustic painting;144 a process which does not admit of being applied to walls, but is in common use145 by way of ornament for ships of war, and, indeed, merchant-ships at the present day. As we go so far as to paint these vehicles of danger, no one can be surprised if we paint our funeral piles as well, or if we have our gladiators conveyed in handsome carriages to the scene of death, or, at all events, of carnage. When we only contemplate this extensive variety of colours, we cannot but admire the ingenuity displayed by the men of former days.


It was with four colours only,146 that Apelles,147 Echion, Melanthius, and Nicomachus, those most illustrous painters, executed their immortal works; melinum148 for the white, Attic sil149 for the yellow, Pontic sinopis for the red, and atramentum for the black;150 and yet a single picture of theirs has sold before now for the treasures of whole cities. But at the present day, when purple is employed for colouring walls even, and when India sends to us the slime151 of her rivers, and the corrupt blood of her dragons152 and her elephants, there is no such thing as a picture of high quality produced. Everything, in fact, was superior at a time when the resources of art were so much fewer than they now are. Yes, so it is; and the reason is, as we have already stated,153 that it is the material, and not the efforts of genius, that is now the object of research.


One folly, too, of this age of ours, in reference to painting, I must not omit. The Emperor Nero ordered a painting of himself to be executed upon canvass, of colossal proportions, one hundred and twenty feet in height; a thing till then unknown.154 This picture was just completed when it was burnt by lightning, with the greater part of the gardens of Maius, in which it was exhibited.

A freedman of the same prince, on the occasion of his exhibiting a show of gladiators at Antium, had the public porticos hung, as everybody knows, with paintings, in which were represented genuine portraits of the gladiators and all the other assistants. Indeed, at this place, there has been a very prevailing taste for paintings for many ages past. C. Terentius Lucanus was the first who had combats of gladiators painted for public exhibition: in honour of his grandfather, who had adopted him, he provided thirty pairs of gladiators in the Forum, for three consecutive days, and exhibited a painting of their combats in the Grove of Diana.155


I shall now proceed to enumerate, as briefly as possible, the more eminent among the painters; it not being consistent with the plan of this work to go into any great lengths of detail. It must suffice therefore, in some cases, to name the artist in a cursory manner only, and with reference to the account given of others; with the exception, of course, of the more famous pro- ductions of the pictorial art, whether still in existence or now lost, all of which it will be only right to take some notice of. In this department, the ordinary exactness of the Greeks has been somewhat inconsistent, in placing the painters so many Olympiads after the statuaries and toreutic156 artists, and the very first of them so late as the ninetieth Olympiad; seeing that Phidias himself is said to have been originally a painter, and that there was a shield at Athens which had been painted by him: in addition to which, it is universally agreed that in the eighty-third Olympiad, his brother Panænus157 painted, at Elis,158 the interior of the shield of Minerva, which had been executed by Colotes,159 a disciple of Phidias and his assistant in the statue of the Olympian Jupiter.160 And then besides, is it not equally admitted that Candaules, the last Lydian king of the race of the Heraclidæ, very generally known also by the name of Myrsilus, paid its weight in gold for a picture by the painter Bularchus,161 which represented the battle fought by him with the Magnetes? so great was the estimation in which the art was already held. This circumstance must of necessity have happened about the period of our Romulus; for it was in the eighteenth Olympiad that Candaules perished, or, as some writers say, in the same year as the death of Romulus: a thing which clearly demonstrates that even at that early period the art had already become famous, and had arrived at a state of great perfection.

If, then, we are bound to admit this conclusion, it must be equally evident that the commencement of the art is of much earlier date, and that those artists who painted in monochrome,162 and whose dates have not been handed down to us, must have flourished at even an anterior period; Hygiænon, namely, Dinias, Charmadas,163 Eumarus, of Athens, the first who distinguished the sexes164 in painting, and attempted to imitate every kind of figure; and Cimon165 of Cleonæ, who improved upon the inventions of Eumarus.

It was this Cimon, too, who first invented foreshortenings,166 or in other words, oblique views of the figure, and who first learned to vary the features by representing them in the various attitudes of looking backwards, upwards, or downwards. It was he, too, who first marked the articulations of the limbs, indicated the veins, and gave the natural folds and sinuosities to drapery. Panænus, too, the brother of Phidias, even executed a painting167 of the battle fought by the Athenians with the Persians at Marathon: so common, indeed, had the employment of colours become, and to such a state of perfection had the art arrived, that he was able to represent, it is said, the portraits of the various generals who commanded at that battle, Miltiades, Callimachus, and Cynægirus, on the side of the Athenians, and, on that of the barbarians, Datis and Artaphernes.


And not only this, but, during the time that Panænus flourished, there were contests in the pictorial art instituted at Corinth and Delphi. On the first occasion, Panænus himself entered the lists, at the Pythian Games, with Timagoras of Chalcis, by whom he was defeated; a circumstance which is recorded in some ancient lines by Timagoras himself, and an undoubted proof that the chroniclers are in error as to the date of the origin of painting. After these, and yet before the ninetieth Olympiad, there were other celebrated painters, Polygnotus of Thasos,168 for instance, who was the first to paint females in transparent drapery, and to represent the head covered with a parti-coloured head-dress. He, too, was the first to contribute many other improvements to the art of painting, opening the mouth, for example, showing the teeth, and throwing expression into the countenance, in place of the ancient rigidity of the features.

There is a picture by this artist in the Portico169 of Pompeius, before the Curia that was built by him; with reference to which, there is some doubt whether the man represented with a shield is in the act of ascending or descending. He also embellished the Temple170 at Delphi, and at Athens the Portico known as the Pœcile;171 at which last he worked gratuitously, in conjunction with Micon,172 who received pay for his labours. Indeed Polygnotus was held in the higher esteem of the two; for the Amphictyons,173 who form the general Council of Greece, decreed that he should have his lodging furnished him at the public expense.

There was also another Micon, distinguished from the first Micon by the surname of "the younger," and whose daughter Timarete174 also practised the art of painting.


In the ninetieth Olympiad lived Aglaophon,175 Cephisodorus, Erillus, and Evenor, the father of Parrhasius, one of the greatest of painters, and of whom we shall have to speak when we come to the period at which he flourished. All these were artists of note, but not sufficiently so to detain us by any further details, in our haste to arrive at the luminaries of the art; first among whom shone Apollodorus of Athens, in the ninety-third Olympiad. He was the first to paint objects as they really appeared; the first too, we may justly say, to confer glory176 by the aid of the pencil.177 Of this artist there is a Priest in Adoration, and an Ajax struck by Lightning, a work to be seen at Pergamus at the present day: before him, there is no painting of any artist now to be seen which has the power of rivetting the eye.

The gates of art being now thrown open by Apollodorus, Zeuxis of Heraclea178 entered upon the scene, in the fourth year of the ninety-fifth Olympiad, destined to lead the pencil—for it is of the pencil that we are still speaking—a pencil for which there was nothing too arduous, to a very high pitch of glory. By some writers he is erroneously placed in the eighty-ninth Olympiad, a date that must of necessity be reserved for Demophilus of Himera and Neseus of Thasos, of one of whom, it is uncertain which, Zeuxis was the pupil. It was in reference to him that Apollodorus, above-mentioned, wrote a verse to the effect, that Zeuxis had stolen the art from others and had taken it all to himself.179 Zeuxis also acquired such a vast amount of wealth, that, in a spirit of ostentation, he went so far as to parade himself at Olympia with his name embroidered on the checked pattern of his garments in letters of gold. At a later period, he came to the determination to give away his works, there being no price high enough to pay for them, he said. Thus, for instance, he gave an Alcmena to the people of Agrigentum, and a Pan to Archelaüs.180 He also painted a Penelope, in which the peculiar character of that matron appears to be delineated to the very life; and a figure of an athlete, with which he was so highly pleased, that he wrote beneath it the line which has since become so famous, to the effect that it would be easier to find fault with him than to imitate him.181 His Jupiter seated on the throne, with the other Deities standing around him, is a magnificent production: the same, too, with his Infant Hercules strangling the Dragons, in presence of Amphitryon and his mother Alcmena, who is struck with horror. Still, however, Zeuxis is generally censured for making the heads and articulations of his figures out of proportion. And yet, so scrupulously careful was he, that on one occasion, when he was about to execute a painting for the people of Agrigentum,182 to be consecrated in the Temple of the Lacinian Juno there, he had the young maidens of the place stripped for examination, and selected five of them, in order to adopt in his picture the most commendable points in the form of each. He also painted some monochromes in white.183

The contemporaries and rivals of Zeuxis were Timanthes, Androcydes, Eupompus, and Parrhasius. (10.) This last, it is said, entered into a pictorial contest with Zeuxis, who represented some grapes, painted so naturally that the birds flew towards the spot where the picture was exhibited. Parrhasius, on the other hand, exhibited a curtain, drawn with such singular truthfulness, that Zeuxis, elated with the judgment which had been passed upon his work by the birds, haughtily demanded that the curtain should be drawn aside to let the picture be seen. Upon finding his mistake, with a great degree of ingenuous candour he admitted that he had been surpassed, for that whereas he himself had only deceived the birds, Parrhasius had deceived him, an artist.

There is a story, too, that at a later period, Zeuxis having painted a child carrying grapes, the birds came to peck at them; upon which, with a similar degree of candour, he expressed himself vexed with his work, and exclaimed—" I have surely painted the grapes better than the child, for if I had fully succeeded in the last, the birds would have been in fear of it." Zeuxis executed some figures also in clay,184 the only works of art that were left behind at Ambracia, when Fulvius Nobilior185 transported the Muses from that city to Rome. There is at Rome a Helena by Zeuxis, in the Porticos of Philippus,186 and a Marsyas Bound, in the Temple of Concord187 there.

Parrhasius of Ephesus also contributed greatly to the progress of painting, being the first to give symmetry to his figures, the first to give play and expression to the features, elegance to the hair, and gracefulness to the mouth: indeed, for contour, it is universally admitted by artists that he bore away the palm. This, in painting, is the very highest point of skill. To paint substantial bodies and the interior of objects is a great thing, no doubt, but at the same time it is a point in which many have excelled: but to make the extreme outline of the figure, to give the finishing touches to the painting in rounding off the contour, this is a point of success in the art which is but rarely attained. For the extreme outline, to be properly executed, requires to be nicely rounded, and so to terminate as to prove the existence of something more behind it, and thereby disclose that which it also serves to hide.

Such is the merit conceded to Parrhasius by Antigonus188 and Xenocrates,189 who have written on the art of painting; and in this as well as in other points, not only do they admit his excellence, but enlarge upon it in terms of the highest commendation. There are many pen sketches by him still in existence, both upon panel and on parchment, from the study of which, even artists, it is said, may greatly profit.

Notwithstanding these points of excellence, however, Parrhasius seems comparatively inferior to himself in giving the proper expression to the middle of the body. In his allegorical picture of the People of Athens, he has displayed singular ingenuity in the treatment of his subject; for in representing it, he had to depict it as at once fickle, choleric, unjust, and versatile; while, again, he had equally to show its attributes of implacability190 and clemency, compassionateness and pride, loftiness and humility, fierceness and timidity— and all these at once. He painted a Theseus also, which was formerly in the Capitol at Rome, a Naval Commander191 wearing a cuirass, and, in one picture, now at Rhodes, figures of Meleager, Hercules, and Perseus. This last painting, though it has been thrice struek by lightning, has escaped being effaced, a circumstance which tends to augment the admiration which it naturally excites. He painted an Archigallus192 also, a picture which the Emperor Tiberius greatly admired. According to Deculo,193 that prince had it shut up in his chamber, the price at which it was valued being six hundred thousand sesterces.

Parrhasius also painted a Thracian Nurse, with an Infant in her arms, a Philiscus,194 a Father Liber195 attended by Virtue, Two Children, in which we see pourtrayed the careless simplicity of childhood, and a Priest attended by a Boy, with a censer and chaplet. There are also two most noble pictures by him; one of which represents a Runner196 contending for the prize, completely armed, so naturally depicted that he has all the appearance of sweating. In the other we see the Runner taking off his armour, and can fancy that we hear him panting aloud for breath. His Æneas, Castor, and Pollux, all represented in the same picture, are highly praised; his Telephus also, and his Achilles, Agamemnon, and Ulysses.

Parrhasius was a most prolific artist, but at the same time there was no one who enjoyed the glory conferred upon him by his talent with greater insolence and arrogance. It was in this spirit, that he went so far as to assume certain surnames, and to call himself "Habrodiætus;"197 while in some other verses he declared himself to be the "prince of painters," and asserted that in him the art had arrived at perfection. But above all things, it was a boast with him that he had sprung from the lineage of Apollo, and that he had painted his Hercules, a picture now at Lindos, just as he had often seen him in his sleep. It was in this spirit, too, that upon being defeated by Timanthes, at Samos, by a great majority of votes, the subject of the picture being Ajax and the Award of the Arms,198 he declared, in the name of his hero, that he felt himself quite disgraced on thus seeing himself a second time defeated by an unworthy opponent. He painted also some smaller pictures of an immodest nature, indulging his leisure in such prurient fancies as these.199

As to Timanthes,200 he was an artist highly gifted with genius, and loud have some of the orators201 been in their commendations of his Iphigenia, represented as she stands at the altar awaiting her doom. Upon the countenance of all present, that of her uncle202 in particular, grief was depicted; but having already exhausted all the characteristic features of sorrow, the artist adopted the device of veiling the features of the victim's father,203 finding himself unable adequately to give expression to his feelings. There are also some other proofs of his genius, a Sleeping Cyclops, for instance, which he has painted upon a small panel; but, being desirous to convey an idea of his gigantic stature, he has painted some Satyrs near him measuring his thumb with a thyrsus. Indeed, Timanthes is the only one among the artists in whose works there is always something more implied by the pencil than is expressed, and whose execution, though of the very highest quality, is always surpassed by the inventiveness of his genius. He has also painted the figure of a Hero, a master-piece of skill, in which he has carried the art to the very highest pitch of per- fection, in the delineation of the warrior: this last-mentioned work is now at Rome, in the Temple of Peace.204

It was at this period, too, that Euxinidas had for his pupil Aristides,205 who became a most illustrious artist; and that Eupompus instructed Pamphilus, who afterwards became the instructor of Apelles. There is by Eupompus, a Victor in a gymnastic contest, holding a palm. So high was the reputation of this artist, that he established a school of painting, and so divided the art into three styles; whereas till then there had been but two, known respectively as the Helladic206 and the Asiatic. In honour of him, a native of Sicyon by birth, the Helladic school was divided into two, and from this period there were three distinct styles recognized, the Ionic, the Sicyonian, and the Attic.

We have, by Pamphilus,207 a picture representing the Alliance and the Battle that was fought at Phlius;208 the Victory209 also that was gained by the Athenians, and a representation of Ulysses in his ship. He was a Macedonian by birth, but was the first painter who was also skilled in all the other sciences, arithmetic and geometry more particularly, without the aid of which he maintained that the pictorial art could not attain perfection. He gave instruction to no one for a smaller sum than one talent, at the rate of five hundred denarii per annum,210 and this fee both Apelles and Melanthius paid. It was through his influence that, first at Sicyon, and then throughout the whole of Greece, all children of free birth were taught the graphic211 art, or in other words, the art of depicting upon boxwood, before all others; in consequence of which this came to be looked upon as the first step in the liberal arts. It is the fact, however, that this art has always been held in high estimation, and cultivated by persons of free birth, and that, at a more recent period, men of rank even began to pursue it; it having always been forbidden that slaves should receive instruction in it. Hence it is, that neither in painting nor in the toreutic212 art has there been any celebrated work executed by a slave.

In the hundred and seventh Olympiad, flourished Aëtion and Therimachus.213 By the former we have some fine pictures; a Father Liber,214 Tragedy and Comedy, Semiramis from the rank of a slave elevated to the throne, an Old Woman bearing torches, and a New-made Bride, remarkable for the air of modesty with which she is pourtrayed.

But it was Apelles215 of Cos, in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad, who surpassed all the other painters who either preceded or succeeded him. Single-handed, he contributed more to painting than all the others together, and even went so far as to publish some treatises on the principles of the art. The great point of artistic merit with him was his singular charm of gracefulness,216 and this too, though the greatest of painters were his contemporaries. In admiring their works and bestowing high eulogiums upon them, he used to say that there was still wanting in them that ideal of beauty217 so peculiar to himself, and known to the Greeks as "Charis;"218 others, he said, had acquired all the other requisites of perfection, but in this one point he himself had no equal. He also asserted his claim to another great point of merit: admiring a picture by Protogenes, which bore evident marks of unbounded laboriousness and the most minute finish, he remarked that in every respect Protogenes was fully his equal, or perhaps his superior, except in this, that he himself knew when to take his hand off a picture—a memorable lesson, which teaches us that over-carefulness may be productive of bad results. His candour too, was equal to his talent; he acknowledged the superiority of Melanthius in his grouping, and of Asclepiodorus in the niceness of his measurements, or, in other words, the distances that ought to be left between the objects represented.

A circumstance that happened to him in connection with Protogenes is worthy of notice. The latter was living at Rhodes, when Apelles disembarked there, desirous of seeing the works of a man whom he had hitherto only known by reputation. Accordingly, he repaired at once to the studio; Protogenes was not at home, but there happened to be a large panel upon the easel ready for painting, with an old woman who was left in charge. To his enquiries she made answer, that Protogenes was not at home, and then asked whom she should name as the visitor. "Here he is," was the reply of Apelles, and seizing a brush, he traced with colour upon the panel an outline of a singularly minute fineness. Upon his return, the old woman mentioned to Protogenes what had happened. The artist, it is said, upon remarking the delicacy of the touch, instantly exclaimed that Apelles must have been the visitor, for that no other person was capable of executing anything so exquisitely perfect. So saying, he traced within the same outline a still finer outline, but with another colour, and then took his departure, with instructions to the woman to show it to the stranger, if he returned, and to let him know that this was the person whom he had come to see. It happened as he anticipated; Apelles returned, and vexed at finding himself thus surpassed, he took up another colour and split219 both of the outlines, leaving no possibility of anything finer being executed. Upon seeing this, Protogenes admitted that he was defeated, and at once flew to the harbour to look for his guest. He thought proper, too, to transmit the panel to posterity, just as it was, and it always continued to be held in the highest admiration by all, artists in particular. I am told that it was burnt in the first fire which took place at Cæsar's palace on the Palatine Hill; but in former times I have often stopped to admire it. Upon its vast surface it contained nothing whatever except the three outlines, so remarkably fine as to escape the sight: among the most elaborate works of numerous other artists it had all the appearance of a blank space; and yet by that very fact it attracted the notice of every one, and was held in higher estimation than any other painting there.

It was a custom with Apelles, to which he most tenaciously adhered, never to let any day pass, however busy he might be, without exercising himself by tracing some outline or other; a practice which has now passed into a proverb.220 It was also a practice with him, when he had completed a work, to exhibit it to the view of the passers-by in some exposed place;221 while he himself, concealed behind the picture, would listen to the criticisms that were passed upon it; it being his opinion that the judgment of the public was preferable to his own, as being the more discerning of the two. It was under these circumstances, they say, that he was censured by a shoemaker for having represented the shoes with one shoe-string too little. The next day, the shoemaker, quite proud at seeing the former error corrected, thanks to his advice, began to criticize the leg; upon which Apelles, full of indignation, popped his head out, and reminded him that a shoemaker should give no opinion beyond the shoes, a piece of advice which has equally passed into a proverbial saying.222 In fact, Apelles was a person of great amenity of manners, a circumstance which rendered him particularly agreeable to Alexander the Great, who would often come to his studio. He had forbidden himself, by public edict, as already stated,223 to be represented by any other artist. On one occasion, however, when the prince was in his studio, talking a great deal about painting without knowing anything about it, Apelles quietly begged that he would quit the sub- ject, telling him that he would get laughed at by the boys who were there grinding the colours: so great was the influence which he rightfully possessed over a monarch, who was otherwise of an irascible temperament. And yet, irascible as he was, Alexander conferred upon him a very signal mark of the high estimation in which he held him; for having, in his admiration of her extraordinary beauty, engaged Apelles to paint Pancaste undraped,224 the most beloved of all his concubines, the artist while so engaged, fell in love with her; upon which, Alexander, perceiving this to be the case, made him a present of her, thus showing himself, though a great king in courage, a still greater one in self-command, this action redounding no less to his honour than any of his victories. For in thus conquering himself, not only did he sacrifice his passions in favour of the artist, but even his affections as well; uninfluenced, too, by the feelings which must have possessed his favourite in thus passing at once from the arms of a monarch to those of a painter. Some persons are of opinion that Pancaste was the model of Apelles in his painting of Venus Anadyomene.225

It was Apelles too, who, courteous even to his rivals, first established the reputation of Protogenes at Rhodes. Held as he was in little estimation by his own fellow-countrymen, a thing that generally226 is the case, Apelles enquired of him what price he set upon certain finished works of his, which he had on hand. Upon Protogenes mentioning some very trifling sum or other, Apelles made him an offer of fifty talents, and then circulated a report that he was buying these works in order to sell them as his own. By this contrivance, he aroused the Rhodians to a better appreciation of the merits of their artist, and only consented to leave the pictures with them upon their offering a still larger price.

He painted portraits, too, so exactly to the life, that a fact with which we are made acquainted by the writings of Apion the grammarian seems altogether incredible. One of those persons, he says, who divine events by the traits of the fea- tures, and are known as "metoposcopi,"227 was enabled, by an examination of his portraits, to tell the year of their death, whether past or future, of each person represented. Apelles had been on bad terms with Ptolemæus in former times, when they formed part of the suite of Alexander. After Ptolemæus had become king of Egypt, it so happened that Apolles was driven by the violence of a tempest to Alexandria. Upon this, some of his rivals fraudulently suborned a jester, who was attached to the court, to carry him an invitation to dine with the king. Accordingly, Apelles attended; upon which Ptolemæus was highly indignant, and, summoning before him his stewards228 of the household, requested that the artist would point out the one that had given him the invitation. Thus challenged, Apelles seized a piece of quenched charcoal that lay in the fire-place, and traced a likeness upon the wall, with such exactness, that the king, the moment he began it, recognized the features as those of the jester. He also painted a portrait of King Antigonus;229 and as that monarch was blind of one eye, he invented a method of concealing the defect. With this object, he painted him in profile, in order that what in reality was wanting to the person might have the semblance of being wanting to the picture rather, he making it his care to show that side of the face only which he could show without any defect. Among his works, too, there are some figures representing persons at the point of death; but it is not easy to say which of his productions are of the highest order of excellence.

His Venus Rising from the Sea, known as the Venus Anadyomene,230 was consecrated by the late Emperor Augustus in the Temple231 of his father232 Cæsar; a work which has been cele- brated in certain Greek lines,233 which, though they have out- lived it, have perpetuated its fame.234 The lower part of the picture having become damaged, no one could be found to repair it; and thus did the very injury which the picture had sustained, redound to the glory of the artist. Time, however, and damp at last effaced the painting, and Nero, in his reign, had it replaced by a copy, painted by the hand of Dorotheus.235 Apelles also commenced another Venus for the people of Cos,236 which would have outshone even the former one; but death invidiously prevented its completion, nor could any one be found to complete the work in conformity with the sketches of the outline. He painted also, in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, Alexander the Great wielding the Thunderbolts, a picture for which he received twenty talents of gold. The fingers have all the appearance of projecting from the surface, and the lightning seems to be darting from the picture. And then, too, let the reader bear in mind that all these works were executed by the aid of four237 colours only. The price paid in golden coin for this picture was ascertained by weight,238 there being no specific sum agreed upon.

He also painted a Procession of the Megabyzus,239 the priest of Diana at Ephesus; and a Clitus240 on Horseback, hastening to the combat, his Armour-bearer handing him his helmet at his command. How many times he painted Alexander and Philip, it would be quite superfluous to attempt to enumerate. At Samos, there is a Habron241 by him, that is greatly admired; at Rhodes a Menander,242 king of Caria, and an Ancæus;243 at Alexandria, a Gorgosthenes, the Tragedian; and at Rome, a Castor and Pollux, with figures of Victory and Alexander the Great, and an emblematical figure of War with her hands tied behind her, and Alexander seated in a triumphal car; both of which pictures the late Emperor Augustus, with a great degree of moderation244 and good taste, consecrated in the most frequented parts of his Forum: the Emperor Claudius, however, thought it advisable to efface the head of Alexander in both pictures, and substitute likenesses of his predecessor Augustus. It is by his hand too, it is generally supposed, that the Hercules, with the face averted, now in the Temple of Anna,245 was painted; a picture in which, one of the greatest difficulties in the art, the face, though hidden, may be said to be seen rather than left to the imagination. He also painted a figure of a naked246 Hero,247 a picture in which he has challenged Nature herself.

There exists too, or did exist, a Horse that was painted by him for a pictorial contest; as to the merits of which, Apelles appealed from the judgment of his fellow-men to that of the dumb quadrupeds. For, finding that by their intrigues his rivals were likely to get the better of him, he had some horses brought, and the picture of each artist successively shown to them. Accordingly, it was only at the sight of the horse painted by Apelles that they began to neigh; a thing that has always been the case since, whenever this test of his artistic skill has been employed. He also painted a Neoptolemus248 on horse-back, fighting with the Persians; an Archeläus,249 with his Wife and Daughter; and an Antigonus on foot, with a cuirass on, and his horse led by his side. Connoisseurs in the art give the preference, before all other works of his, to his paintings of King Archeläus on horseback, and of Diana in the midst of a throng of Virgins performing a sacrifice; a work in which he would appear to have surpassed the lines250 of Homer descriptive of the same subject. He also portrayed some things, which in reality do not admit of being portrayed—thunder, lightning, and thunderbolts, in pictures which are known by the respective names of Bronte, Astrape, and Ceraunobolia.

His inventions, too, in the art of painting, have been highly serviceable to others; but one thing there was in which no one could imitate him. When his works were finished, he used to cover them with a black varnish, of such remarkable thinness, that while by the reflection it gave more vivacity to the colours, and preserved them from the contact of dust and dirt, its existence could only be detected by a person when close enough to touch it.251 In addition to this, there was also this other great advantage attending it: the brightness of the colours was softened thereby, and harmonized to the sight, looking as though they had been viewed from a distance, and through a medium of specular-stone;252 the contrivance, by some indescribable means, giving a sombreness to colours which would otherwise have been too florid.

One of the contemporaries of Apelles was Aristides253 of Thebes; the first of all the painters to give full expression to the mind254 and passions of man, known to the Greeks us ἤθη, as well as to the mental perturbations which we experience: he was somewhat harsh, however, in his colours. There is a picture by him of a Captured City, in which is represented an infant crawling toward the breast of its wounded mother, who, though at the point of death, has all the appearance of being aware of it, and of being in dread lest the child should suck blood in place of milk from her exhausted breast: this picture Alexander the Great ordered to be transferred to Pella, his native place. Aristides also painted a Battle with the Persians, a picture which contained one hundred figures, for each of which he was paid at the rate of ten minæ by Mnason, the tyrant of Elatea.255 He also painted Chariots with four horses in full career; a Suppliant, which almost speaks, Huntsmen with game; Leontion, the mistress of Epicurus; the Anapauomenc,256 a damsel pining to death from love for her brother; a Father Liber257 also, and an Artamene, two fine pictures now to be seen in the Temple of Ceres258 at Rome; a Tragedian and a Child, in the Temple of Apollo,259 a picture which has lost its beauty, owing to the unskilfulness of the painter to whom M. Junius, the prætor, entrusted the cleaning of it, about the period of the Apollinarian Games.260 There was also to be seen, in the Temple of Faith, in the Capitol, a picture of his, representing an Aged Man giving instructions to a Child on the lyre. He executed also a painting of an Invalid, upon which endless encomiums have been lavished. Indeed, so great was the excellence of this artist, that King Attalus, it is said, purchased one picture of his at the price of one hundred talents.

At the same period261 flourished Protogenes, as already stated. He was a native of Caunus,262 a place held in subjection by the Rhodians. Great poverty in his early days, and extreme application to his art, were the causes of his comparative unproductiveness. It is not known with certainty from whom he received his instruction in the art: indeed some say that he was only a ship-decorator down to his fiftieth year; a proof of which, it is asserted, is the fact, that in decorating the Propylæum263 of the Temple of Minerva, situate in one of the most celebrated spots in Athens, where he has painted the fine picture264 of Paralus and Hammonias, known by some as the Nausicaa, he has added in the side pieces of the picture, by painters called "parerga," several small ships of war;265 wishing thereby to show in what department that skill had first manifested itself which had thus reached the citadel of Athens, the scene of his glory. Of all his compositions, however, the palm has been awarded to his Ialysus,266 now at Rome, consecrated in the Temple of Peace there. So long as he was at work upon it, he lived, it is said, upon nothing but soaked lupines; by which means he at once appeased both hunger and thirst, and avoided all risk of blunting his perception by too delicate a diet. In order to protect this picture against the effects of ill-usage and old age, he painted it over four times,267 so that when an upper coat might fail, there would be an under one to succeed it. There is in this picture the figure of a dog, which was completed in a very remarkable manner, inasmuch as accident had an equal share with design in the execution of it. The painter was of opinion that he had not given the proper expression to the foam at the mouth of the animal, panting for breath, as it was represented; while, with all other parts of the picture, a thing extremely difficult with him, he was perfectly satisfied. The thing that displeased him was, the evident traces of art in the execution of it, touches which did not admit of any diminution, and yet had all the appearance of being too laboured, the effect produced being far removed from his conception of the reality: the foam, in fact, bore the marks of being painted, and not of being the natural secretion of the animal's mouth. Vexed and tormented by this dilemma, it being his wish to depict truth itself, and not something that only bore a semblance of truth, he effaced it again and again, changed his pencil for another, and yet by no possibility could satisfy himself. At last, quite out of temper with an art, which, in spite of him, would still obtrude itself, he dashed his sponge against the vexatious spot; when behold: the sponge replaced the colours that it had just removed, exactly in accordance with his utmost wishes, and thus did chance represent Nature in a painting.

Following his example, Nealces,268 it is said, succeeded in representing the foam at a horse's mouth; for on one occasion, when engaged in painting a man holding in a pair of horses and soothing them with his voice,269 he also dashed his sponge against the picture, with the view of producing a like effect.

It was on account of this Ialysus, which he was apprehensive of destroying, that King Demetrius270 forbore to set fire to the only side of the city of Rhodes by which it was capable of being taken; and thus, in his anxiety to spare a picture, did he lose his only opportunity of gaining a victory. The dwelling of Protogenes at this period was situate in a little garden in the suburbs, or in other words, in the midst of the camp of Demetrius. The combats that were taking place made no difference whatever to the artist, and in no way interrupted his proceeding with the works which he had commenced; until at last he was summoned before the king, who enquired how he could have the assurance thus to remain without the walls. "Because I know," was his answer, "that you are waging war with the Rhodians, and not with the arts." Upon this, the king, delighted at having the opportunity of protecting the hand which he had thus spared, ordered a guard to be placed at his disposal for the especial purpose of his protection. In order, too, that he might not distract the artist's attention by sending for him too often, he would often go, an enemy albeit, to pay him a visit, and, abandoning his aspirations for victory, in the midst of arms and the battering down of walls, would attentively examine the compositions of the painter. Even to this day, the story is still attached to the picture which he was then engaged upon, to the effect, that Protogenes painted it beneath the sword. It is his Satyr, known as the "Anapauomenos;"271 in whose hand, to mark the sense of security that he felt, the painter has placed a pair of pipes.

Protogenes executed also, a Cydippe; a Tlepolemus; a portrait of Philiscus, the tragic poet, in an attitude of meditation; an Athlete; a portrait of King Antigonus, and one of the mother of Aristotle.272 It was this philosopher too, who advised him to paint the exploits of Alexander the Great, as being certain to be held in everlasting remembrance. The impulse, however, of his natural disposition, combined with a certain artistic caprice, led him in preference to adopt the various subjects which have just been mentioned. His last works were representations of Alexander and the god Pan. He also executed some figures in bronze, as already273 stated.

At the same period also, lived Asclepiodorus,274 who was greatly admired by Apelles for his proportions. The tyrant Mnason275 paid him, for his picture of the Twelve Gods, at the rate of thirty minæ for each divinity. This same Mnason also paid Theomnestus twenty minæ for each of his Heroes.

In addition to these, it is only proper to mention Nicomachus,276 the son and disciple of Aristiæus. He painted a Rape of Proserpina, a picture that was formerly in the Temple of Minerva in the Capitol, above the shrine of Juventas.277 Another picture of his was to be seen also in the Capitol, placed there by the Roman general Plancus,278 a Victory soaring aloft in a chariot: he was the first painter who represented Ulysses wearing the pileus.279 He painted also an Apollo and Diana; the Mother280 of the Gods seated on a Lion; the fine picture of the Bacchantes, with Satyrs moving stealthily towards them; and a Scylla, now at Rome in the Temple of Peace. No painter ever worked with greater rapidity than Nicomachus; indeed it is said, that on one occasion having entered into an engagement with Aristratus,281 the tyrant of Sicyon, to paint within a given time the monument which he was raising to the memory of the poet Telestis,282 the artist only arrived a few days before the expiration of the term; upon which, the tyrant was so angry that he threatened to punish him: however, in the few days that were left, Nicomachus, to the admiration of all, completed the work, with equal promptitude and success. Among his pupils, were his brother Ariston, his son Aristides, and Philoxenus of Eretria, who painted for King Cassander a picture representing one of the battles between Alexander and Darius, a work which may bear comparison with any. He also painted a picture in grotesque, representing Three Sileni at their revels. Imitating the celerity of execution displayed by his master, he introduced a more sketchy style of painting, executed in a comparatively off-hand manner.283

To these artists Nicophanes284 has also been added, an elegant and finished painter, to whom for gracefulness few can be compared, but for a severe and tragic style far inferior to Zeuxis or Apelles. Perseus also belongs to this period, a pupil of Apelles, who dedicated to him his work on painting. Aristides of Thebes had for pupils his sons Niceros and Ariston. By the latter of these artists, there is a Satyr crowned with a chaplet and holding a goblet: two of his pupils were Antorides and Euphranor, of the latter of whom we shall have to make mention again.285


We must now, however, make some mention of those artists who acquired fame by the pencil in an inferior style of painting. Among these was Piræicus, inferior to few of the painters in skill. I am not sure that he did not do injustice to himself by the choice of his subjects,286 seeing that, although he adopted an humble walk, he still attained in that walk the highest reputation. His subjects were barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, jackasses, eatables, and the like, and to these he was indebted for his epithet of "Ithyparographos."287 His paintings, however, are exquisitely pleasing, and have sold at higher prices than the very largest works of many masters.

On the other hand again, as Varro tells us, a single picture by Serapio covered the whole space of the balustrades,288 beneath the Old Shops,289 where it was exhibited. This artist was very successful in painting stage-scenery, but was unable to depict the human form. Dionysius,290 on the contrary, painted nothing but men, and hence it was that he had the surname of "Anthropographos."291 Callicles292 also painted some small pictures, and Calates executed some small works in the comic style. Both of these styles were adopted by Antiphilus;293 who painted a very fine Hesione, and a Philip and Alexander with Minerva, now in the School of the Porticos294 of Octavia. In the Portico of Philippus,295 also, there is a Father Liber296 by him; an Alexander when a child; and an Hippolytus alarmed at the Bull, which is rushing upon him:297 and in the Portico of Pompeius298 we have his Cadmus and Europa. On the other hand, again, he painted a figure in a ridiculous costume, known jocosely as the Gryllus; and hence it is that pictures of this class299 are generally known as "Grylli." Antiphilus was a native of Egypt, and received instruction in the art from Ctesidemus.300

It would not be right to pass in silence the painter of the Temple at Ardea,301 the more particularly as he was honoured with the citizenship at that place, and with the following inscription in verse upon one of the paintings which he executed there:
"These paintings, worthy of this worthy place,
Temple of Juno, queen, and wife of Jove,
Plautius Marcus,302 from Alalia, made.
May Ardea now and ever praise him for his skill."

These lines are written in ancient Latin characters.

Ludius too, who lived in the time of the late Emperor Augustus, must not be allowed to pass without some notice; for he was the first to introduce the fashion of covering the walls of our houses with most pleasing landscapes, representing villas, porticos, ornamental gardening, woods, groves, hills, fishponds, canals,303 rivers, sea-shores, and anything else one could desire; varied with figures of persons walking, sailing, or proceeding to their villas, on asses or in carriages. Then. too, there are others to be seen fishing, fowling, or gathering in the vintage. In some of his decorations there are fine villas to be seen, and roads to them across the marshes, with women making304 bargains to be carried across on men's shoulders, who move along slipping at every step and tottering beneath their load; with numberless other subjects of a similar nature, redolent of mirth and of the most amusing ingenuity. It was this artist, too, who first decorated our uncovered305 edifices with representations of maritime cities, a subject which produces a most pleasing effect, and at a very trifling expense.

But as for fame, that has been reserved solely for the artists who have painted pictures; a thing that gives us all the more reason to venerate the prudence displayed by the men of ancient times. For with them, it was not the practice to decorate the walls of houses, for the gratification of the owners only; nor did they lavish all their resources upon a dwelling which must of necessity always remain a fixture in one spot, and admits of no removal in case of conflagration. Protogenes was content with a cottage in his little garden; Apelles had no paintings on the plaster of his walls; it not being the fashion in their day to colour the party-walls of houses from top to bottom. With all those artists, art was ever watchful for the benefit of whole cities only, and in those times a painter was regarded as the common property of all.

Shortly before the time of the late Emperor Augustus, Arellius was in high esteem at Rome; and with fair reason, had he not profaned the art by a disgraceful piece of profanity; for, being always in love with some woman or other, it was his practice, in painting goddesses, to give them the features of his mistresses; hence it is, that there were always some figures of prostitutes to be seen in his pictures. More recently, lived Amulius,306 a grave and serious personage, but a painter in the florid style. By this artist there was a Minerva, which had the appearance of always looking at the spectators, from whatever point it was viewed. He only painted a few hours each day, and then with the greatest gravity, for he always kept the toga on, even when in the midst of his implements. The Golden Palace307 of Nero was the prison-house of this artist's productions, and hence it is that there are so few of them to be be seen elsewhere.

Next in repute to him were Cornelius Pinus and Attius Priscus, who painted the Temple of Honour and that of Virtue,308 on their restoration by the Emperor Vespasianus Augustus. Priscus approaches more closely to the ancient masters.


I must not omit here, in reference to painting, a celebrated story that is told about Lepidus. During the Triumvirate, when he was entertained by the magistrates of a certain place, he had lodgings given him in a house that was wholly surrounded with trees. The next day, he complained to them in a threatening tone, that he had been unable to sleep for the singing of the birds there. Accordingly, they had a dragon painted, on pieces of parchment of the greatest length that could possibly be obtained, and surrounded the grove with it; a thing that so terrified the birds, it is said, that they became silent at once; and hence it was that it first became known how this object could be attained.


It is not agreed who was the inventor of the art of painting in wax and in encaustic.309 Some think that it was a discovery of the painter Aristides,310 and that it was afterwards brought to perfection by Praxiteles: but there are encaustic paintings in existence, of a somewhat prior date to them, those by Polygnotus,311 for example, and by Nicanor and Arcesilaüs,312 natives of Paros. Elasippus too, has inscribed upon a picture of his at Ægina, the word ἐνέχαεν;313 a thing that he certainly could not have done, if the art of encaustic painting had not been then invented.


It is said, too, that Pamphilus,314 the instructor of Apelles, not only painted in encaustic, but also instructed Pausias315 of Sicyon in the art, the first who rendered himself distinguished in this branch. Pausias was the son of Bryetes, by whom he was originally instructed in the art of painting. He retouched also with the pencil316 some walls at Thespiæ, then undergoing repair, which had formerly been painted by Polygnotus. Upon instituting a comparison, however, it was considered that he was greatly inferior, this kind of painting not being in his line. It was he, too, who first thought of painting ceilings; nor had it been the practice before his day to use this kind of decoration for arched roofs. He painted many small pictures also, miniatures of children more particularly; a thing which, according to the interpretation put upon it by his rivals, was owing to the peculiarly slow process of encaustic painting. The consequence was, that being determined to give a memorable proof of his celerity of execution, he completed a picture in the space of a single day, which was thence called the "Hemeresios,"317 representing the portrait of a child.

In his youth, he was enamoured of Glycera,318 his fellow-townswoman, the first inventor of chaplets; and in his rivalry of the skill shown by her, he achieved so much success in the encaustic art, as to reproduce the almost numberless tints displayed by flowers. At a later period, he painted her, seated, with a chaplet on, and thus produced one of the very finest of his pictures; known as the "Stephaneplocos"319 by some, and as the "Stephanopolis"320 by others; from the circumstance that Glycera had supported herself in her poverty by selling these chaplets. A copy of this picture, usually known as an "apographon,"321 was purchased by L. Lucullus at Athens, during the festival of the Dionysia, at the price of two talents.

Pausias also painted some large pictures, a Sacrifice of Oxen, for instance, which used to be seen in the Portico of Pom- peius. In this painting he invented several improvements, which many artists have since imitated, but none with the same success. Although in the picture it was particularly his desire to give an impression of the length of the ox, he painted it with a front view and not sideways, and still has caused the large dimensions of the animal to be fully understood. And then too, whereas all other painters colour in white such parts as they wish to have the appearance of being prominent, and in black such portions as are intended to remain in the back-ground, he has painted the whole of the ox of a black colour, and has shown the dimensions of the body which throws the shadow by the medium of the shadow itself; thus evincing a wonderful degree of skill in showing relief upon a coat painted with a single colour, and conveying an impression of uniform solidity upon a broken ground.322 It was at Sicyon also that Pausias passed his life, a city which for a long time continued to be the native place of painting. Ultimately, all the paintings belonging to that place were sold by public auction for the discharge of the debts owing by the city, and were transferred to Rome in the ædileship of Scaurus.323

Next to him, in the hundred and fourth Olympiad, Euphranor,324 the Isthmian, distinguished himself far beyond all others, an artist who has been already mentioned in our account of the statuaries. He executed some colossal figures also, and some statues in marble, and he chased some drinking-vessels; being studious and laborious in the highest degree, excellent in every branch, and at all times equal to himself. This artist seems to have been the first to represent heroes with becoming dignity, and to have paid particular attention to symmetry. Still, however, in the generality of instances, he has made the body slight in proportion to the head and limbs. He composed some treatises also upon symmetry and colours. His works are, an Equestrian Combat;325 the Twelve Gods; and a Theseus; with reference to which he remarked that the Theseus of Parrhasius had been fed upon roses, but his own upon beef.326 There are also at Ephesus some famous pictures by him; an Ulysses, in his feigned madness, yoking together an ox and a horse; Men, in an attitude of meditation, wearing the pallium;327 and a Warrior, sheathing his sword.

At the same time, also, flourished Cydias;328 for whose picture of the Argonautæ the orator Hortensius paid one hundred and forty-four thousand sesterces, and had a shrine constructed expressly for its reception on his estate at Tusculum.329 There was also Antidotus, a pupil of Euphranor, by whom there is, at Athens, a Combatant armed with a shield; a Wrestler, also; and a Trumpeter, a work which has been considered a most exquisite production.

Antidotus, as a painter, was more careful in his works than prolific, and his colouring was of a severe style. His principal glory was his having been the instructor of Nicias330 of Athens; who was a most careful painter of female portraits, and a strict observer of light and shade,331 making it his especial care that the figures in his pictures should appear in the boldest relief. His works are, a Nemea, which was brought from Asia to Rome by Silanus, and was placed in the Curia, as already stated;332 a Father Liber,333 in the Temple334 of Concord; a Hyacinthus,335 which the Emperor Augustus was so delighted with, that he took it away with him after the capture of Alexandria; for which reason also it was consecrated in the Temple336 of Augustus by the Emperor Tiberius; and a Danaë. At Ephesus, there is a tomb by him of a megabyzus,337 or priest of the Ephesian Diana; and at Athens a representation of the Necyomantea338 of Homer; which last he declined to sell to King Attalus for sixty talents, and in preference, so rich was he, made a present of it to his own native place. He also executed some large pictures, among which there are a Calypso, an Io, an Andromeda, a very fine Alexander, in the Porticos339 of Pompeius, and a Calypso, seated. To this painter also there are some pictures of cattle attributed, and in his dogs he has been remarkably successful. It was this Nicias, with reference to whom, Praxiteles, when asked with which of all his works in marble he was the best pleased, made answer, "Those to which Nicias has set his hand," so highly did he esteem the colouring of that artist. It has not been satisfactorily ascertained whether it is this artist or another of the same name that some writers have placed in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad.

With Nicias has been compared, and indeed sometimes preferred to him, Athenion of Maronea,340 a pupil of Glaucion of Corinth. In his colouring he is more sombre than Nicias, and yet, with all his sombreness, more pleasing; so much so indeed, that in his paintings shines forth the extensive knowledge which he possessed of the art. He painted, in the Temple at Eleusis, a Phylarchus;341 and at Athens, a family group, which has been known as the "Syngenicon;"342 an Achilles also, concealed in a female dress, and Ulysses detecting him; a group of six whole-length figures, in one picture; and, a work which has contributed to his fame more than any other, a Groom leading a Horse. Indeed, if he had not died young, there would have been no one comparable to Athenion in painting.

Heraclides, too, of Macedon, had some repute as an artist. At first he was a painter of ships, but afterwards, on the capture of King Perseus, he removed to Athens; where at the same period was also Metrodorus,343 who was both a painter and a philosopher, and of considerable celebrity in both branches. Hence it was, that when L. Paulus Æmilius, after the conquest of Perseus,344 requested the Athenians to send him the most esteemed philosopher for the education of his children, and a painter to represent his triumph, they made choice of Metrodorus, declaring that he was eminently suited for either purpose; a thing which Paulus admitted to be the case.

Timomachus of Byzantium, in the time of the Dictator Cæsar, painted an Ajax345 and a Medea, which were placed by Cæsar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, having been purchased at the price of eighty talents; the value of the Attic talent being, according to M. Varro, equivalent to six thousand denarii. An Orestes, also by Timomachus, an Iphigenia in Tauris, and a Lecythion, a teacher of gymnastics, are equally praised; a Noble Family also; and Two Men clothed in the pallium,346 and about to enter into conversation, the one standing, the other in a sitting posture. It is in his picture, however of the Gorgon,347 that the art appears to have favoured him most highly.

Aristolaüs, the son and pupil of Pausias, was one of the painters in a more severe style: there are by him an Epaminondas, a Pericles, a Medea, a Theseus, an emblematical picture of the Athenian People, and a Sacrifice of Oxen. Some persons, too, are pleased with the careful style of Nicophanes,348 who was also a pupil of Pausias; a carefulness, however, which only artists can appreciate, as in other respects he was harsh in his colours, and too lavish of sil;349 as in his picture, for example, of Æsculapius with his daughters, Hygia,350 Ægle, and Panacea, his Jason, and his Sluggard, known as the "Ocnos,"351 a man twisting a rope at one end as an ass gnaws it at the other. As to Socrates,352 his pictures are, with good reason, universally esteemed.

Having now mentioned the principal painters in either branch,353 I must not pass in silence those who occupy the next rank. Aristoclides decorated the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Antiphilus354 is highly praised for his picture of a Boy blowing a Fire, which illumines an apartment handsomely furnished, and throws a light355 upon the features of the youth; a Spinning-room, with women plying their respective tasks; and a King Ptolemæus hunting. But his most famous picture is his Satyr, clad in a panther's skin, and known as the "Aposcopeuon."356 Aristophon357 has painted an Ancæus358 wounded by the Boar, with Astypale, the sharer of his grief; and a picture with numerous figures, representing Priam, Helena, Credulity, Ulysses, Dphobus, and Guile.359 Androbius has painted a Scyllus360 cutting away the anchors of the Persian fleet: and Artemon a Danaë, with Robbers in admiration; a Queen Stratonice;361 and a Hercules and Deianira. But the finest of all this artist's works are those now in the buildings of Octavia; a Hercules ascending to heaven, with the sanction of the gods, from his funeral pile upon Mount Œta in Doris; and the story of Laomedon and his bargain362 with Hercules and Neptune. Alcimachus has painted Dioxippus,363 who was victorious in the pancratium at Olympia, without raising the dust; a victory known to the Greeks as being gained "aconiti."364 Cœnus painted pedigrees.365

Ctesilochus, a pupil366 of Apelles, was famous for a burlesque picture of his representing Jupiter in labour with Bacchus,367 with a mitra368 on his head, and crying like a woman in the midst of the goddesses, who are acting as midwives. Cleon distinguished himself by his Cadmus; and Ctesidemus, by his Capture of Œchalia369 and his Laodamia.

Ctesicles became notorious for the insult which he offered to Queen Stratonice;370 for, upon failing to meet with an honourable reception from her, he painted her, romping with a fisherman, for whom, according to common report, she had conceived an ardent affection. After exhibiting this picture in the harbour at Ephesus, he at once set sail and escaped: the queen, however, would not allow of its removal, the likenesses of the two figures being so admirably expressed. Cratinus,371 the comic writer, painted at Athens, in the Pompeion372 there.

Of Eutychides, there is a Victory guiding a chariot drawn by two horses. Eudorus is famous for his dramatic scenery; he executed some statues in bronze also. By Hippys there is a Neptune and Victory. Habron painted a picture of Friendship and Concord, and several figures of divinities; Leontiscus, an Aratus with the trophies of victory,373 and a Singing-girl; Leon, a portrait of Sappho; and Nearchus, a Venus attended by Cupids and Graces, and a Hercules, sorrowing and repentant at the sad results of his madness.374 Nealces,375 a remarkably ingenious and inventive artist, painted a Venus. On one occasion, when he had to represent a naval engagement between the Persians and Egyptians, wishing it to be understood that it took place on the river Nilus, the waters of which are similar in appearance to those of the sea, he employed an emblem to disclose that which would not admit of expression by art; for he painted an ass drinking on the shore, and a crocodile lying in wait for him.376

Œnias has painted a Family Group; Philiscus, a Painter's Studio, with a boy blowing the fire; Phalerion, a Scylla; Simonides, an Agatharchus and a Mnemosyne; Simus, a youth reposing, a Fuller's Shop, a person celebrating the Quinquatria,377 and a Nemesis of great merit. By Theorus378 there is a Man Anointing himself; a picture of the Murder of Ægisthus and Clytæmnestra by Orestes; and a representation of the Trojan War, in a series of paintings, now at Rome, in the Porticos379 of Philippus: a Cassandra380 also, in the Temple of Concord; a Leontium, the mistress of Epicurus, in an attitude of meditation; and a King Demetrius.381 Theon382 has painted the Frenzy383 of Orestes, and a Thamyras384 playing on the lyre; Tauriscus, a Discobolus,385 a Clytæmnestra, a Pan in miniature, a Polynices claiming386 the sovereignty, and a Capaneus.387

In speaking of these artists, I must not omit to mention one memorable circumstance: Erigonus, who was colour-grinder to the painter Nealces, himself made such progress in the art as to leave a very celebrated pupil, Pasias, the brother of Ægineta, the modeller. It is also a very singular fact, and one well deserving of remark, that the last works of these artists, their unfinished paintings, in fact, are held in greater admiration than their completed works; the Iris of Aristides, for instance, the Tyndaridæ388 of Nicomachus, the Medea of Timomachus,389 and the Venus of Apelles,390 already mentioned. For in such works as these, we not only see the outline depicted, and the very thoughts of the artist expressed, but have the composition additionally commended to our notice by the regrets which we must necessarily feel on finding the hand that commenced it arrested by death.

There are still some other artists, who, though by no means without reputation, can only be noticed here in a summary manner: Aristocydes; Anaxander; Aristobulus of Syria; Arcesilas,391 son of Tisicrates; Corœbos, a pupil of Nicomachus; Charmantides, a pupil of Euphranor; Dionysodorus of Colophon; Dicæogenes, a contemporary of King Demetrius;392 Euthymides; Heraclides393 of Macedon; Milo of Soli, a pupil of the statuary Pyromachus; Mnasitheus of Sicyon; Mnasitimus, the son and pupil of Aristonidas;394 Nessus, son of Habron;395 Polemon of Alexandria; Theodorus of Samos, and Stadieus, pupils of Nicosthenes; and Xeno of Sicyon, a pupil of Neocles.

There have been some female painters also. Timarete, the daughter of Micon,396 painted a Diana at Ephesus, one of the very oldest panel-paintings known. Irene, daughter and pupil of the artist Cratinus,397 painted a figure of a girl, now at Eleusis, a Calypso, an Aged Man, the juggler Theodorus, and Alcisthenes the dancer. Aristarete, daughter and pupil of Nearchus, painted an Æsculapius. Iaia of Cyzicus, who always remained single, painted at Rome, in the youth of M. Varro, both with the brush, and with the graver,398 upon ivory, her subjects being female portraits mostly. At Naples, there is a large picture by her, the portrait of an Old Woman; as also a portrait of herself, taken by the aid of a mirror. There was no painter superior to her for expedition; while at the same time her artistic skill was such, that her works sold at much higher prices than those of the most celebrated portrait-painters of her day, Sopolis namely, and Dionysius,399 with whose pictures our galleries are filled. One Olympias painted also, but nothing is known relative to her, except that she had Autobulus for a pupil.


In ancient times there were but two methods of encaustic400 painting, in wax and on ivory,401 with the cestrum or pointed graver. When, however, this art came to be applied to the painting of ships of war, a third method was adopted, that of melting the wax colours and laying them on with a brush, while hot.402 Painting of this nature,403 applied to vessels, will never spoil from the action of the sun, winds, or salt water.


In Egypt, too, they employ a very remarkable process for the colouring of tissues. After pressing the material, which is white at first, they saturate it, not with colours, but with mordents that are calculated to absorb colour. This done, the tissues, still unchanged in appearance, are plunged into a cauldron of boiling dye, and are removed the next moment fully coloured. It is a singular fact, too, that although the dye in the pan is of one uniform colour, the material when taken out of it is of various colours, according to the nature of the mordents that have been respectively applied to it: these colours, too, will never wash out. Thus the dye-pan, which under ordinary circum- stances, no doubt, would have made but one colour of several, if coloured tissues had been put into it, is here made to yield several colours from a single dye. At the same moment that it dyes the tissues, it boils in the colour; and it is the fact, that material which has been thus submitted to the action of fire becomes stouter and more serviceable for wear, than it would have been if it had not been subjected to the process


On painting we have now said enough, and more than enough; but it will be only proper to append some accounts of the plastic art. Butades, a potter of Sicyon, was the first who invented, at Corinth, the art of modelling portraits in the earth which he used in his trade. It was through his daughter that he made the discovery; who, being deeply in love with a young man about to depart on a long journey, traced the profile of his face, as thrown upon the wall by the light of the lamp. Upon seeing this, her father filled in the outline, by compressing clay upon the surface, and so made a face in relief, which he then hardened by fire along with other articles of pottery. This model, it is said, was preserved in the Nymphæum404 at Corinth, until the destruction of that city by Mummius.405 Others, again, assert that the first inventors of the plastic art were Rhœcus406 and Theodorus,407 at Samos, a considerable period before the expulsion of the Bacchiadæ from Corinth: and that Damaratus,408 on taking to flight from that place and settling in Etruria, where he became father of Tarquinius, who was ultimately king of the Roman people, was accompanied thither by the modellers Euchir,409 Diopus, and Eugrammus, by whose agency the art was first introduced into Italy.

Butades first invented the method of colouring plastic compositions, by adding red earth to the material, or else modelling them in red chalk: he, too, was the first to make masks on the outer edges of gutter-tiles upon the roofs of buildings; in low relief, and known as "prostypa" at first, but afterwards in high relief, or "ectypa." It was in these designs,410 too, that the ornaments on the pediments of temples originated; and from this invention modellers first had their name of "plastæ."


The first person who expressed the human features by fitting a mould of plaster upon the face, and then improving it by pouring melted wax into the cast, was Lysistratus411 of Sicyon, brother of Lysippus, already mentioned. It was he, in fact, who first made it his study to give a faithful likeness; for before his time, artists only thought how to make their portraits as handsome as possible. The same artist, too, was the first who thought of making models for his statues; a method which afterwards became so universally adopted, that there could be neither figure nor statue made without its model in clay. Hence it would appear, that the art of modelling in clay is more ancient than that of moulding in bronze.412


The most celebrated modellers were Damophilus and Gorgasus, who were painters as well. These artists adorned with their works, in both kinds, the Temple of Ceres,413 in the Circus Maximus at Rome; with an inscription in Greek, which stated that the decorations on the right-hand were the workmanship of Damophilus, and those on the left, of Gorgasus. Varro says that, before the construction of this temple, everything was Tuscan414 in the temples; and that, when the temple was afterwards repaired, the painted coatings of the walls were cut away in tablets and enclosed in frames, but that the figures on the pediments were dispersed. Chalcosthenes,415 too,416 executed at Athens some works in unbaked earth, on the spot which, from his manufactory, has since obtained the name of "Ceramicus."417

M. Varro states that he knew an artist at Rome, Possis by name, who executed fruit, grapes, and fish, with such exactness, that it was quite impossible, by only looking at them, to distinguish them from the reality. He speaks very highly also of Arcesilaüs,418 who was on terms of intimacy with Lucius Lucullus,419 and whose models in plaster used to sell at a higher rate, among artists themselves, than the works of others. He informs us, also, that it was by this modeller that the Venus Genetrix in the Forum of Cæsar was executed, it having been erected before completion, in the great haste that there was to consecrate it; that the same artist had made an agreement with Lucullus to execute a figure of Felicity, at the price of sixty thousand sesterces, the completion of which was prevented by their death; and that Octavius, a Roman of equestrian rank, being desirous of a model for a mixing-bowl,420 Arcesilaüs made him one in plaster, at the price of one talent.

Varro praises Pasiteles421 also, who used to say, that the plastic art was the mother of chasing, statuary, and sculpture, and who, excellent as he was in each of these branches, never executed any work without first modelling it. In addition to these particulars, he states that the art of modelling was anciently cultivated in Italy, Etruria in particular; and that Volcanius was summoned from Veii, and entrusted by Tarquinius Priscus with making the figure of Jupiter, which he intended to consecrate in the Capitol; that this Jupiter was made of clay, and that hence arose the custom of painting it with minium;422 and that the four-horse chariot, so often423 mentioned, upon the pediment of the temple, was made of clay as well. We learn also from him, that it was by the same artist that the Hercules was executed, which, even to this day, is named424 at Rome from the material of which it is composed. Such, in those times, were the most esteemed statues of the gods; and small reason have we to complain of our forefathers for worshipping such divinities as these; for in their day there was no working of gold and silver—no, not even in the service of the gods.


Statues of this nature are still in existence at various places. At Rome, in fact, and in our municipal towns, we still see many such pediments of temples; wonderful too, for their workmanship, and, from their artistic merit and long duration, more deserving of our respect than gold, and certainly far less baneful. At the present day even, in the midst of such wealth as we possess, we make our first libation at the sacrifice, not from murrhine425 vases or vessels of crystal, but from ladles426 made of earthenware.

Bounteous beyond expression is the earth, if we only consider in detail her various gifts. To omit all mention of the cereals, wine, fruits, herbs, shrubs, medicaments, and metals, bounties which she has lavished upon us, and which have already passed under our notice, her productions in the shape of pottery alone, would more than suffice, in their variety, to satisfy our domestic wants; what with gutter-tiles of earthenware, vats for receiving wine, pipes427 for conveying water, conduits428 for supplying baths, baked tiles for roofs, bricks for foundations, the productions, too, of the potter's wheel; results, all of them, of an art, which induced King Numa to establish, as a seventh company,429 that of the makers of earthenware.

Even more than this, many persons have chosen to be buried in coffins430 made of earthenware; M. Varro, for instance, who was interred, in true Pythagorean style, in the midst of leaves of myrtle, olive, and black poplar; indeed, the greater part of mankind make use of earthen vases for this purpose. For the service of the table, the Samian pottery is even yet held in high esteem; that, too, of Arretium in Italy, still maintains its high character; while for their cups, and for those only, the manufactories of Surrentum, Asta, Pollentia, Saguntum in Spain, and Pergamus in Asia,431 are greatly esteemed.

The city of Tralles, too, in Asia, and that of Mutina in Italy, have their respective manufactures of earthenware, and even by this branch of art are localities rendered famous; their productions, by the aid of the potter's wheel, becoming known to all countries, and conveyed by sea and by land to every quarter of the earth. At Erythræ, there are still shown, in a temple there, two amphoræ, that were consecrated in consequence of the singular thinness of the material: they originated in a contest between a master and his pupil, which of the two could make earthenware of the greatest thinness. The vessels of Cos are the most highly celebrated for their beauty, but those of Adria432 are considered the most substantial.

In relation to these productions of art, there are some instances of severity mentioned: Q. Coponius, we find, was condemned for bribery, because he made present of an amphora of wine to a person who had the right of voting. To make luxury, too, conduce in some degree to enhance our estimation of earthenware, "tripatinium,"433 as we learn from Fenestella, was the name given to the most exquisite course of dishes that was served up at the Roman banquets. It consisted of one dish of murænæ,434 one of lupi,435 and a third of a mixture of fish. It is clear that the public manners were then already on the decline; though we still have a right to hold them preferable to those of the philosophers even of Greece, seeing that the representatives of Aristotle, it is said, sold, at the auction of his goods, as many as seventy dishes of earthenware. It has been already436 stated by us, when on the subject of birds, that a single dish cost the tragic actor Æsopus one hundred thousand sesterces; much to the reader's indignation, no doubt; but, by Hercules! Vitellius, when emperor, ordered a dish to be made, which was to cost a million of sesterces, and for the preparation of which a furnace had to be erected out in the fields! luxury having thus arrived at such a pitch of excess as to make earthenware even sell at higher prices than murrhine437 vessels. It was in reference to this circumstance, that Mucianus, in his second consulship, when pronouncing one of his perorations, reproached the memory of Vitellius with his dishes as broad as the Pomptine Marsh; not less deserving to be execrated than the poisoned dish of Asprenas, which, according to the accusation brought against him by Cassius Severus, caused the death of one hundred and thirty guests.438

These works of artistic merit have conferred celebrity on some cities even, Rhegium for example, and Cumæ. The priests of the Mother of the gods, known as the Galli, deprive themselves of their virility with a piece of Samian439 pottery, the only means, if we believe M. Cælius,440 of avoiding dangerous results. He it was, too, who recommended, when inveighing against certain abominable practices, that the person guilty of them should have his tongue cut out, in a similar manner; a reproach which would appear to have been levelled by anticipation against this same Vitellius.

What is there that human industry will not devise? Even broken pottery has been utilized; it being found that, beaten to powder, and tempered with lime, it becomes more solid and durable than other substances of a similar nature; forming the cement known as the "Signine"441 composition, so extensively employed for even making the pavements of houses.442


But there are other resources also, which are derived immediately from the earth. Who, indeed, cannot but be surprised at finding the most inferior constituent parts of it, known as "dust"443 only, on the hills about Puteoli, forming a barrier against the waves of the sea, becoming changed into stone the moment of its immersion, and increasing in hardness from day to day—more particularly when mixed with the cement of Cumæ? There is an earth too, of a similar nature found in the districts about Cyzicus; but there, it is not a dust, but a solid earth, which is cut away in blocks of all sizes, and which, after being immersed in the sea, is taken out transformed into stone. The same thing may be seen also, it is said, in the vicinity of Cassandrea;444 and at Cnidos, there is a spring of fresh water which has the property of causing earth to petrify within the space of eight months. Between Oropus and Aulis, every portion of the land upon which the sea encroaches becomes transformed into solid rock.

The finer portion of the sand of the river Nilus is not very different in its properties from the dust of Puteoli; not, indeed, that it is used for breaking the force of the sea and withstanding the waves, but only for the purpose, forsooth, of subduing445 the body for the exercises of the palestra! At all events, it was for this purpose that it used to be brought over for Patrobius,446 a freedman of the Emperor Nero. I find it stated also, that Craterus, Leonnatus, and Meleager, generals of Alexander the Great, had this sand transported along with their munitions of war. But I forbear to enlarge any further upon this subject; or indeed, by Hercules! upon those preparations of earth and wax of which the ceromata are made, so much employed by our youth in their exercises of the body, at the cost of all vigour of the mind.


And then, besides, have we not in Africa and in Spain walls447 of earth, known as "formaceoan" walls? from the fact that they are moulded, rather than built, by enclosing earth within a frame of boards, constructed on either side. These walls will last for centuries, are proof against rain, wind, and fire, and are superior in solidity to any cement. Even at this day, Spain still beholds watch-towers that were erected by Hannibal, and turrets of earth448 placed on the very summits of her mountains. It is from the same source, too, that we derive the substantial materials so well adapted for forming the earth-works of our camps and embankments against the impetuous violence of rivers. What person, too, is unacquainted with the fact, that partitions are made of hurdles coated with clay, and that walls are constructed of unbaked bricks?


Earth for making bricks should never be extracted from a sandy or gravelly soil, and still less from one that is stony; but from a stratum that is white and cretaceous, or else impregnated with red earth.449 If a sandy soil must be employed for the purpose, it should at least be male450 sand, and no other. The spring is the best season for making bricks, as at midsummer they are very apt to crack. For building, bricks two years old are the only ones that are approved of; and the wrought material of them should be well macerated before they are made.

There are three different kinds of bricks; the Lydian, which is in use with us, a foot-and-a-half in length by a foot in breadth; the tetradoron; and the pentadoron; the word "doron" being used by the ancient Greeks to signify the palm451—hence, too, their word "doron" meaning a gift, because it is the hand that gives.—These last two kinds, therefore, are named respectively from their being four and five palms in length, the breadth being the same. The smaller kind is used in Greece for private buildings, the larger for the construction of public edifices. At Pitane,452 in Asia, and in the cities of Maxilua and Calentum in Farther Spain, there are bricks453 made, which float in water, when dry; the material being a sort of pumice-earth, extremely good for the purpose when it can be made to unite. The Greeks have always preferred walls of brick, except in those cases where they could find silicious stone for the purposes of building: for walls of this nature will last for ever, if they are only built on the perpendicular. Hence it is, that the Greeks have built their public edifices and the palaces of their kings of brick; the wall at Athens, for example, which faces Mount Hymettus; the Temples of Jupiter and Hercules at Patræ,454 although the columns and architraves in the interior are of stone; the palace of King Attalus at Tralles; the palace of Crœsus at Sardes, now converted into an asylum455 for aged persons; and that of King Mausolus at Halicarnassus; edifices, all of them, still in existence.

Muræna and Varro, in their ædileship, had a fine fresco painting, on the plaster of a wall at Lacedæmon, cut away from the bricks, and transported in wooden frames to Rome, for the purpose of adorning the Comitium. Admirable as the work was of itself, it was still more admired after being thus transferred. In Italy also there are walls of brick, at Arretium and Mevania.456 At Rome, there are no buildings of this description, because a wall only a foot-and-a-half in thickness would not support more than a single story; and by public ordinance it has been enacted that no partition should exceed that thickness; nor, indeed, does the peculiar construction of our party-walls admit of it.


Let thus much be deemed sufficient on the subject of bricks. Among the other kinds of earth, the one of the most singular nature, perhaps, is sulphur, an agent of great power upon other substances. Sulphur is found in the Æolian Islands, between Sicily and Italy, which are volcanic, as already457 stated. But the finest sulphur of all, is that which comes from the Isle of Melos. It is obtained also in Italy, upon the range of hills in the territories of Neapolis and Campania, known as the Leucogæi:458 when extracted from the mines there, it is purified by the agency of fire.

There are four kinds of sulphur; the first of which is "live" sulphur, known as "apyron"459 by the Greeks, and found in solid masses, or in other words, in blocks. This, too, is the only sulphur that is extracted in its native state, the others being found in a state of liquescence, and requiring to be purified by being boiled in oil. This kind is green and transparent, and is the only sulphur that is used for medicinal purposes. A second kind is known as the "glebaceous"460 sulphur, and is solely employed in the workshops of the fullers. The third kind, also, is only used for a single purpose, that of fumigating wool, a process which contributes very greatly to making the wool white and soft; "egula"461 is the name given to it. The fourth kind is used in the preparation of matches more particularly.

In addition to these several uses, sulphur is of such remarkable virtue, that if it is thrown upon the fire it will at once detect, by the smell, whether or not a person is subject to epilepsy. Anaxilaüs used to employ this substance by way of pastime: putting sulphur in a cup of wine, with some hot coals beneath, he would hand it round to the guests, the light given by it, while burning, throwing a ghastly paleness like that of death upon the face of each. Its properties are calorific and maturative, in addition to which, it disperses abscesses on the body: hence it is that it is used as an ingredient in plasters and emollient poultices. Applied to the loins and kidneys, with grease, when there are pains in those parts, it is marvellously effectual as a remedy. In combination with turpentine, it removes lichens on the face, and leprosy,462 the preparation being known as "harpax,"463 from the celerity with which it acts upon the skin; for which reason it ought to be removed every now and then. Employed as an electuary, it is good for asthma, purulent expectorations, and stings inflicted by scorpions. Live sulphur, mixed with nitre, and then bruised with vinegar and applied, causes morphew to disappear, and destroys nits in the hair; in combination, too, with sandarach and vinegar, it is good for diseases of the eyelids.

Sulphur has its place among our religious ceremonies, being used as a fumigation for purifying houses.464 Its virtues are also to be perceived in certain hot mineral waters;465 and there is no substance that ignites more readily, a proof that there is in it a great affinity to fire. Lightning and thunder are attended with a strong smell of sulphur, and the light produced by them is of a sulphureous complexion.


Nearly approaching to the nature of sulphur is that of bitumen,466 which in some places assumes the form of a slime, and in others that of an earth; a slime, thrown up, as already467 stated, by a certain lake in Judæa, and an earth, found in the vicinity of Sidon, a maritime town of Syria. In both these states, it admits of being thickened and condensed. There is also a liquid468 bitumen, that of Zacynthus, for example, and the bitumen that is imported from Babylon; which last kind is also white: the bitumen, too, of Apollonia is liquid. All these kinds, in Greek, have the one general name of "pissasphaltos,"469 from their strong resemblance to a compound of pitch and bitumen. There is also found an unctuous liquid bitumen, resembling oil, in a spring at Agrigentum, in Sicily, the waters of which are tainted by it. The inhabitants of the spot collect it on the panicles of reeds, to which it very readily adheres, and make use of it for burning in lamps, as a substitute for oil, as also for the cure of itch-scab in beasts of burden.

Some authorities include among the bitumens, naphtha, a substance which we have already mentioned in the Second Book;470 but the burning properties which it possesses, and its susceptibility of igniting, render it quite unfit for use. Bitumen, to be of good quality, should be extremely brilliant, heavy, and massive; it should also be moderately smooth, it being very much the practice to adulterate it with pitch. Its medi- cinal properties are similar to those of sulphur, it being naturally astringent, dispersive, contractive, and agglutinating: ignited, it drives away serpents by the smell. Babylonian bitumen is very efficacious, it is said, for the cure of cataract and albugo, as also of leprosy, lichens, and pruriginous affections. Bitumen is employed, too, in the form of a liniment, for gout; and every variety of it is useful for making bandolines for eyelashes that are refractory and impede the sight. Applied topically with nitre,471 it is curative of tooth-ache, and, taken internally, with wine, it alleviates chronic coughs and difficulty of respiration. It is administered in a similar manner for dysentery, and is very good for arresting looseness of the bowels. Taken internally with vinegar, it dissolves and brings away coagulated blood. It modifies pains also in the loins and joints, and, applied with barley-meal, it forms a peculiar kind of plaster, to which it has given its name.472 It stanches blood also, heals wounds, and unites the sinews when severed. Bitumen is administered for quartan fevers, in doses of one drachma to an equal quantity of hedyosmos,473 the whole kneaded up with one obolus of myrrh. The smell of burnt bitumen detects a tendency to epilepsy, and, applied to the nostrils with wine and castoreum,474 it dispels suffocations of the uterus. Employed as a fumigation, it acts as a check upon procidence of the uterus, and, taken internally with wine, it has the effect of an emmenagogue.

Another use that is made of it, is for coating the inside of copper vessels, it rendering them proof against the action of fire. It has been already475 stated that bitumen was formerly employed for staining copper and coating statues. It has been used, too, as a substitute for lime; the walls of Babylon, for instance, which are cemented with it. In the smithies they are in the habit of varnishing iron and heads of nails with it, and of using it for many other purposes as well.


Not less important, or indeed very dissimilar, are the uses that are made of alumen;476 by which name is understood a sort of brine477 which exudes from the earth. Of this, too, there are several kinds. In Cyprus there is a white alumen, and another kind of a darker colour. The difference, however, in their colour is but trifling in reality, though the uses made of them are very dissimilar; the white liquid alumen being employed for dyeing478 wool of bright colours, and the black, on the other hand, for giving wool a tawny or a sombre tint. Gold, too, is purified479 by the agency of black alumen. Every kind of alumen is a compound of slime and water, or in other words, is a liquid product exuding from the earth; the concretion of it commencing in winter, and being completed by the action of the summer sun. That portion of it which is the first matured, is the whitest in appearance.

The countries which produce this substance, are Spain, Ægypt, Armenia, Macedonia, Pontus, Africa,480 and the islands of Sardinia, Melos, Lipara, and Strongyle:481 the most esteemed, however, is that of Egypt,482 the next best being the produce of Melos. Of this last kind there are also two varieties, the liquid alumen, and the solid. Liquid alumen, to be good, should be of a limpid, milky, appearance: when rubbed between the fingers it should be free from grit, and productive of a slight sensation of heat. The name given to it is "phorimon."483 The mode of detecting whether or not it has been adulterated, is by the application of pomegranate-juice; for if genuine, it will turn black on combining with the juice. The other, or solid alumen, is pale and rough in ap- pearance, and turns black on the application of nut-galls; for which reason it is known by the name of "paraphoron."484

Liquid alumen is naturally astringent, indurative, and corrosive: used in combination with honey, it heals ulcerations of the mouth, pimples, and pruriginous eruptions. The remedy, when thus used, is employed in the bath, the proportions being two parts of honey to one of alumen. It has the effect, also, of checking and dispersing perspiration, and of neutralizing offensive odours of the arm-pits. It is taken too, in the form of pills, for affections of the spleen, and for the purpose of carrying off blood by the urine: incorporated with nitre and melanthium,485 it is curative of itch-scab.

There is one kind of solid alumen, known to the Greeks as "schiston,"486 which splits into filaments of a whitish colour; for which reason some have preferred giving it the name of "trichitis."487 It is produced from the mineral ore known to us as "chalcitis,"488 from which copper is also produced, it being a sort of exudation from that mineral, coagulated into the form of scum. This kind of alumen is less desiccative than the others, and is not so useful as a check upon bad humours of the body. Used, however, either in the form of a liniment or of an injection, it is highly beneficial to the ears; as also for ulcerations of the mouth, and for tooth-ache, if retained with the saliva in the mouth. It is employed also as a serviceable ingredient in compositions for the eyes, and for the generative organs in either sex. The mode of preparing it is to roast it in crucibles, until it has quite lost its liquid form.

There is another variety of alumen also, of a less active nature, and known as "strongyle;"489 which is again subdivided into two kinds; the fungous, which easily dissolves in any liquid, and is looked upon as altogether worthless; and the porous, which is full of small holes like a sponge, and in pieces of a globular form, more nearly approaching white alumen in appearance. It has a certain degree, too, of unctuousness, is free from grit, friable, and not apt to blacken the fingers. This last kind is calcined by itself upon hot coals, unmixed with any other substance, until it is entirely reduced to ashes.

The best kind of all, however, is that called "melinum,"490 as coming from the Isle of Melos, as already mentioned; none being more effectual for acting as an astringent, staining black, and indurating, and none assuming a closer consistency. It removes granulations of the eye-lids, and, in a calcined state, is still more efficacious for checking defluxions of the eyes: in this last form, too, it is employed for the cure of pruriginous eruptions on the body. Whether taken internally, or employed externally, it arrests discharges of blood; and if it is applied with vinegar to a part from which the hair has been first removed, it will change into a soft down the hair which replaces it. The leading property of every kind of alumen is its remarkable astringency, to which, in fact, it is indebted for its name491 with the Greeks. It is for this property that the various kinds are, all of them, so remarkably good for the eyes. In combination with grease, they arrest discharges of blood; and they are employed in a similar manner for checking the spread of putrid ulcers, and for removing sores upon the bodies of infants.

Alumen has a desiccative effect upon dropsical eruptions; and, in combination with pomegranate juice, it removes diseases of the ears, malformed nails, indurations resulting from cicatrization, hangnails, and chilblains. Calcined, with vinegar or nut-galls, in equal proportions, it is curative of phagedænic ulcers; and, in combination with extracted juice of cabbage, of leprosy. Used in the proportion of one part of alumen to two of salt, it arrests the progress of serpiginous eruptions; and an infusion of it in water destroys lice and other parasitical insects that infest the hair. Employed in a similar manner, it is good for burns; and, in combination with the serous492 part of pitch, for furfuraceous eruptions on the body. It is used also as an injection for dysentery, and, employed in the form of a gargle, it braces the uvula and tonsillary glands. For all those maladies which we have men- tioned as being treated with the other kinds of alumen, that imported from Melos, be it understood, is still more efficacious. As to the other uses that are made of it for industrial purposes, such as preparing hides and wool, for example, they have been mentioned already.493


In succession to these, we shall now have to speak of various other kinds of earth494 which are made use of in medicine.

Of Samian earth there are two varieties; one known as "collyrium,"495 the other by the name of "aster."496 To be in perfection, the first kind should be fresh, remarkably smooth, and glutinous to the tongue; the second being of a more solid consistency, and white. They are both prepared for use by being calcined and then rinsed in water, some persons giving the preference to the first. They are both of them useful for discharges of blood from the mouth, and are employed as an ingredient in plasters of a desiccative nature. They are used also in the preparation of ophthalmic compositions.


Of eretria, or Eretrian497 earth, there are also the same number of varieties; one white, and the other of an ashy colour, this last being preferred in medicine. To be good, this earth should be of a soft consistency, and when rubbed upon copper it should leave a violet tint. The virtues of cretria in a medicinal point of view, and the methods of using it, have been already mentioned498 in our description of the pigments.


All these earths—for we will take the present opportunity of mentioning it—are well washed in water, and then dried in the sun; after which, they are again triturated in water, and left to settle: this done, they are divided into tablets. They are usually boiled in earthen vessels, which are well shaken every now and then.


Among the medicinal substances, there is the white earth of Chios also, the properties of which are the same as those of Samian earth. It is used more particularly as a cosmetic for the skin of females; the Selinusian499 earth being also employed for a similar purpose. This last is of a milk-white colour, and melts very rapidly in water: dissolved in milk, it is employed for whitening the plaster coats on walls. Pnigitis500 is very similar to Eretrian earth, only that it is found in larger masses, and is of a glutinous consistency. Its effects are similar to those produced by Cimolian501 earth, but are not so energetic.

Ampelitis502 is an earth which bears a strong resemblance to bitumen. The test of its goodness is its dissolving in oil, like wax, and preserving its black colour when submitted to the action of fire. Its properties are emollient and repercussive; for which reason, it is used in medicinal compositions, those known as "calliblephara,"503 more particularly, and in preparations for dyeing the hair.


Of cretaceous504 earths there are several varieties; and among them, two kinds of Cimolian earth, employed in medicine, the one white and the other inclining to the tint of purpurissum.505 Both kinds, moistened with vinegar, have the effect of dispersing tumours and arresting defluxions. They are curative also of inflammatory swellings and imposthumes of the parotid glands; and, applied topically, they are good for affections of the spleen and pustules on the body. With the addition of aphronitrum,506 oil of cypros,507 and vinegar, they reduce swellings of the feet, care being taken to apply the lotion in the sun, and at the end of six hours to wash it off with salt and water. In combination with wax and oil of cypros, Cimolian earth is good for swellings of the testes.

Cretaceous earths, too, are of a cooling tendency, and, applied to the body in the form of a liniment, they act as a check upon excessive perspiration: taken with wine, in the bath, they remove pimples on the body. The most esteemed of all these earths is that of Thessaly: it is found also in the vicinity of Bubon508 in Lycia.

Cimolian earth is used also for another purpose, that of scouring cloth. As to the kind which is brought from Sardinia, and is known as "sarda," it is used for white tissues only, and is never employed for coloured cloths. Indeed, this last is held in the lowest estimation of all the Cimolian earths; whereas, that of Umbria is more highly esteemed, as also the kind generally known as "saxum."509 It is a property of this last to increase in weight510 by maceration, and it is by weight that it is usually sold, Sardinian earth being sold by measure. Umbrian earth is only used for giving lustre to cloths.

It will not be deemed out of place to give some further account here of this process, there being still in existence the Metilian Law, relative to fullers; an enactment which C. Flaminius and L. Æmilius, in their censorship,511 had passed by the people,512 so attentive to everything were our ancestors. The following then is the method employed in preparing cloth: it is first washed in an infusion of Sardinian earth, and is then exposed to a fumigation with sulphur. This done, it is scoured513 with Cimolian earth, when the cloth has been found to be of a genuine colour; it being very soon detected when it has been coloured with spurious materials, by its turning black and the colours becoming dispersed514 by the action of the sulphur. Where the colours are genuine and rich, they are softened by the application of Cimolian earth; which brightens and freshens them also when they have been rendered sombre by the action of the sulphur. Saxum is better for white tissues, after the application of sulphur, but to coloured cloths it is highly injurious.515 In Greece they use Tymphæan516 gypsum in place of Cimolian earth.


There is another cretaceous earth, known as "argentaria,"517 from the brightness518 which it imparts to silver. There is also the most inferior kind of chalk; which was used by the ancients for tracing the line of victory519 in the Circus, and for marking the feet of slaves on sale, that were brought from beyond sea. Such, for instance, were Publilius520 Lochius, the founder of our mimic scenes; his cousin, Manilius Antiochus,521 the first cultivator of astronomy; and Staberius Eros, our first grammarian; all three of whom our ancestors saw brought over in the same ship522

(18.) But why mention these names, recommended as they are by the literary honours which they acquired? Other instances too, Rome has beheld of persons rising to high positions from the slave-market;523 Chrysogonus, for example, the freedman of Sylla; Amphion, the freedman of Q. Catulus; the man who was the keeper524 of Lucullus; Demetrius, the freedman of Pompeius, and Auge, the freedwoman of Demetrius,525 or else of Pompeius himself, as some have supposed; Hipparchus, the freedman of M. Antonius; as also, Menas526 and Menecrates,527 freedmen of Sextus Pompeius, and many others as well, whom it would be superfluous to enumerate, and who have enriched themselves at the cost of Roman blood, and the licence that results from proscription.

Such is the mark that is set upon those droves of slaves which we see on sale, such the opprobrium thrown upon them by a capricious fortune ! And yet, some of these very men have we beheld in the enjoyment of such power and influence, that the senate itself has decreed them—at the command of Agrippina,528 wife of the Emperor Claudius—the decorations even of the prætorship: all but honoured with the fasces and their laurels, in fact, and sent back in state to the very place from which they originally came, with their feet whitened with the slave-dealer's chalk!


In addition to these, there are various other kinds of earth, endowed with peculiar properties of their own, and which have been already mentioned on former occasions.529 We may, however, take the present opportunity of again remarking the following properties. The earth of the island of Galata and of the vicinity of Clypea, in Africa, is fatal to scorpions; and that of the Balearic Islands and of Ebusus kills serpents.

SUMMARY.—Remedies, narratives, and observations, nine hundred and fifty-six.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Messala530 the Orator, the Elder Messala,531 Fenestella,532 Atticus,533 M. Varro,534 Verrius,535 Cornelius Nepos,536 Deculo,537 Mucianus,538 Melissus,539 Vitruvius,540 Cassius Severus Longulanus,541 Fabius Vestalis,542 who wrote on Painting.

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Pasiteles,543 Apelles,544 Melanthius545 Asclepiodorus,546 Euphranor,547 Heliodorus,548 who wrote on the Votive Offerings of the Athenians, Metrodorus,549 who wrote on Architecture, Democritus,550 Theophrastus,551 Apion552 the grammarian, who wrote on the Medicines derived from Metals, Nymphodorus,553 Iollas,554 Apollodorus,555 Andreas,556 Heraclides,557 Diagoras,558 Botrys,559 Archidemus,560 Dionysius,561 Aristogenes,562 Democles,563 Mnesides,564 Xenocrates565 the son of Zeno, Theomnestus.566

1 "Officinarum tenebræ;" probably in reference to the ignorance displayed by the compounders of medicines, as pointed out in B. xxxiii. c. 38, and in B. xxxiv. c. 25.—B.

2 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

3 See B. xxxiv. c. 9.

4 See B. xxxiii. c. 36.

5 See B. xxxvi. c. 8.

6 See B. v. c. 29.

7 "Surdo figurarum discrimine."

8 We are informed by Suetonius, that this practice existed in the time of Tiberius.—B. See also Note 18, p. 196.

9 Which he is ready to employ in carrying away his plunder.

10 "Ceromata;" this is properly a Greek term, signifying an ointment used by athletes, composed of oil and wax.—B.

11 This practice is referred to by Cicero, De Finib. B. v.—B.

12 In reality, his birth-day was not on the twentieth day of any month; but, for some reason which is not known, he fixed upon this day.—B. He was born on the seventh day of the month Gamelion.

13 From the Greek εὶκὰς, the "twentieth" day of the month.

14 In obedience to the maxim of Epicurus, λάθε βιῶσας—"Live in obscurity."

15 See B. xxi. c. 49, and Note 4, p. 346.

16 This appears to have been the usual practice at the funerals of distinguished personages among the Romans: it is referred to by Tacitus, Ann. B. ii. c. 73, in his account of the funeral of Germanicus.—B.

17 "Tabulina." Rooms situate near the atrium.

18 A cognomen of the Gens Valeria at Rome, from which the family of the Messalæ had also originally sprung.

19 So called from his father-in-law Pomponius, a man celebrated for his wealth, and by whom he was adopted. It would appear that Scipio Pomponianus adopted Scipio Salvitto, so called from his remarkable resemblance to an actor of mimes. See B. vii. c. 10.

20 They were probably, like the Scipios, a branch of the Gens Cornelia. Suetonius speaks in very derogatory terms of a member of this family, who accompanied Julius Cæsar in his Spanish campaign against the Pompeian party.

21 In the Greek Anthology, B. v., we have the imaginary portrait of Homer described at considerable length.—B.

22 Hardouin supposes that this work was written by Cicero, and that he named it after his friend Atticus; but, as Delafosse remarks, it is clear from the context that it was the work of Atticus.—B.

23 M. Deville is of opinion that these portraits were made in relief upon plates of metal, perhaps bronze, and coloured with minium, a red tint much esteemed by the Romans.

24 "Clypei." These were shields or escutcheons of metal, with the features of the deceased person represented either in painting or in relief.

25 Hardouin informs us that there are some Greek inscriptions given by Gruter, p. 441, and p. 476, from which it appears that public festivals were celebrated on occasions of this kind.—B.

26 A.U.C. 671.—B. See B. vii. c. 54.

27 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

28 It is scarcely necessary to refer to the well-known description of the shield of Achilles, in the Iliad, B. xviii. 1. 478 et seq., and of that of Æneas, Æn. B. viii. 1. 626, et seq.—B.

29 He implies that the word is derived from the Greek γλύφειν, "to carve" or "emboss," and not from the old Latin "cluo," "to be famous." Ajasson suggests the Greek καλύπτω, "to cover."

30 Cneius and Publius Scipio, who had been slain by Hasdrubal.—B. As to L. Marcius, see B. ii. c. 3.

31 See B. xxxiii. c. 5.

32 "Lustrations." Periods at the end of the census, made by the censors every five years. The censors were the guardians of the temples, and consequently these bucklers would come under their supervision.

33 This period for the invention of painting by the Egyptians is evidently incorrect; but still there is sufficient reason for concluding that there now exist specimens of Egyptian art, which were in existence previous to the time of the earliest Grecian painters of whom we have any certain account.—B.

34 All the ancients who have treated of the history of the art agree, that the first attempt at what may be considered the formation of a picture, consisted in tracing the shadow of a human head or some other object on the wall, the interior being filled up with one uniform shade of colour.—B.

35 From the Greek μονοχρώματον "single colouring."—B.

36 He is mentioned also by Athenagoras, Strabo, and Athenæus.

37 Called "graphis," by the Greeks, and somewhat similar, probably, to our pen and ink drawings.

38 In Chapter 43 of this Book.—B.

39 Ajasson remarks, that a great number of paintings have been lately discovered in the Etruscan tombs, in a very perfect state, and probably of very high antiquity.—B.

40 There would appear to be still considerable uncertainty respecting the nature of the materials employed by the ancients, and the manner of applying them, by which they produced these durable paintings; a branch of the art which has not been attained in equal perfection by the moderns.—B.

41 Caligula.

42 See B. iii. c. 8.

43 We have already remarked that painting was practised very extensively by the Egyptians, probably long before the period of the Trojan war.—B.

44 Or "Health." It was situate on the Quirinal Hill, in the Sixth Region of the City.

45 "Forum Boarium." In the Eighth Region of the City.

46 Holbein and Mignard did the same.

47 Q. Pedius was either nephew, or great nephew of Julius Cæsar, and had the command under him in the Gallic War; he is mentioned by Cæsar in his Commentaries, and by other writers of this period.—B.

48 Originally the palace of Tullus Hostilius, in the Second Region of the City.

49 Asiaticus, the brother of the elder Africanus.—B.

50 It was beforethe decisive battle near Mount Sipylus, that the son of Africanus was made prisoner. King Antiochus received him with high respect, loaded him with presents, and sent him to Rome.—B.

51 He was legatus under the consul L. Calpurnius Piso, in the Third Punic War, and commanded the Roman fleet. He was elected Coasul B.C. 145.

52 The younger Scipio Africanus.

53 We learn from Valerius Maximus, that C. Puleher was the first to vary the scenes of the stage with a number of colours.—B.

54 See Chapter 36 of this Book.

55 We have an amusing proof of this ignorance of Mummius given by Paterculus, B. i. c. 13, who says that when he had the choicest of the Corinthian statues and pictures sent to Italy, he gave notice to the contractors that if they lost any of them, they must be prepared to supply new ones. Ajasson offers a conjecture which is certainly plausible, that Mummius might possibly regard this painting as a species of talisman.—B.

56 In the Eleventh Region of the City.

57 "Sub Veteribus;" meaning that part of the Forum where the "Old Shops" of the "argentarii" or money-brokers had stood.

58 We have an anecdote of a similar event, related by Cicero, as having occurred to Julius Cæsar, De Oratore, B. ii. c. 66.—B.

59 See B. vii. c. 39.

60 We have had this Temple referred to in B. ii. c. 23, B. vii. c. 39, B. viii. c. 64, and B. ix. c. 57: it is again mentioned in the fortieth Chapter of this Book, and in B. xxxvii. c. 5.—B.

61 In the "Vaporarium," namely.—B. The Thermæ of Agrippa were in the Ninth Region of the City.

62 According to Hardouin, this was done after the battle of Actium, in which Augustus subdued his rival Antony.—B.

63 By adoption. The Temple of Julius Cæsar was in the Forum, in the Eighth Region of the City.

64 See B. vii. c. 22, B. x. c. 60, and B. xxxiv, c. 11.

65 In Chapter 36 of this Book.—B.

66 See B. vii. cc. 45, 54, 60, and B. xxxiv. c. 11.

67 See B. vii. c. 54, B. xv. c. 20, B. xxxiii. c. 6, and B. xxxiv. c. 11.

68 This was the personification of the Nemean forest in Peloponnesus, where Hercules killed the lion, the first of the labours imposed upon him by Eurystheus.—B.

69 See Chapter 40 of this Book,

70 "Inussisse;" meaning that he executed it in encaustic. The Greek term used was probably ενεκαυσε.

71 Hemsterhuys is of opinion that he was the brother of Æschines, the orator, contemptuously alluded to by Demosthenes, Fals. Legat. Sec. 237, as a painter of perfume pots. If sc, he was probably an Athenian, and must have flourished about the 109th Olympiad.

72 In Chapter 40 of this Book.

73 In B. xxxiii. c. 39. He alludes to cinnabaris, minium, rubrica, and sinopis.

74 Meaning "new painting," probably. The reading, however, is doubtful.

75 "Splendor." Supposed by Wornum to be equivalent to our word "tone," applied to a coloured picture, which comprehends both the "tonos" and the "harmoge" of the Greeks. Smith's Diet. Antiq. Art. Painting.

76 "Tone," says Fuseli, (in the English acceptation of the word) "is the element of the ancient 'harmoge,' that imperceptible transition, which, without opacity, confusion, or hardness, united local colour, demitint, shade, and reflexes."—Lect. I.

77 "Austeri aut floridi."

78 Because of their comparatively great expense.

79 See B. xxxiii. cc. 36, 37. Under this name are included Sulphuret of mercury, and Red oxide of lead.

80 See B. xxxiii. cc. 38, 39.

81 See B. xxxiii. c. 26. "Indicum" and "purpurissum" will be described in the present Book.

82 Or "rubrica Sinopica;" "red earth of Sinope," a brown red ochre, or red oxide of iron. Dioscorides identifies it with the Greekμιλτὸς, which indeed seems to have embraced the cinnabaris, minium, and rubricæ of the Romans.

83 "Splendorem." See Note 7 above.

84 So called from its deep grey brown colour, like that of the "cicer" or chick-pea.

85 The sense of this passage seems to require the insertion of "quæ," although omitted by the Bamberg MS.

86 "Pressior."

87 Those parts of the walls, probably, which were nearer to the ground, and more likely to become soiled.

88 Red ochre, or red oxide of iron. See B. xxxiii. c. 38, and B. xxxiv. c. 37.

89 See B. xxxiii. cc. 36, 37.

90 Ajasson thinks that this was an hydroxide of iron, of a greenish yellow or brown colour.

91 Whence our word "ochre." See "Sil," in B. xxxiii. cc. 56, 57.

92 Theophrastus, on the contrary, says that it is "ochra" that is burnt, in order to obtain "rubrica."

93 See B. xxxiii. cc. 56, 57.

94 A white earth from the Isle of Melos. See Chapter 19.

95 See B. xxxiii. c. 20. "One may readily conceive that this must have been a ferruginous ochre, or kind of bole, which is still used as a ground, poliment, assiette."—Beckman, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 294. Bohn's Edition.

96 A white, much used for fresco painting. Ajasson is of opinion, that Pliny, in this Chapter, like the other ancient authors, confounds two earths that are, in reality, totally different,—Hydrosilicate of magnesia, or Steatite, and Rhomboidical carbonate of line.

97 See B. v. c. 6.

98 Ajasson thinks that possibly our compact magnesite, meerschaum, or sea-foam, may be the substance here alluded to.

99 See Chapter 57 of this Book.

100 See B. iv. c. 33. Tournefort says that this earth is exactly similar to the Cimolian earth, described in Chapter 57.

101 See B. xxxiii. c. 57, and Chapter 21 of this Book.

102 In B. xxxiv. c. 54.

103 Ceruse, white lead, or carbonate of lead, is prepared in much the same manner at the present day. Ajasson is of opinion that the native pigment discovered on the lands of Theodotus, was native carbonate of lead, the crystals of which are found accompanied by quartz.

104 "Burnt" ceruse. This was, in fact, one of the varieties of "minium," red oxide of lead, our red lead. Vitruvius and Dioscorides call it "sandaraca," differing somewhat from that of Pliny.

105 In Chapter 10.

106 See B. xxxiii. cc. 56, 57.

107 It was possibly owing to this that the colour known as "umber" received its name, and not from Ombria, in Italy. Ajasson says that shadows cannot be successfully made without the use of transparent colours, and that red and the several browns are remarkably transparent.

108 See B. iv. c. 21.

109 As to both of these artists, see Chapter 36.

110 To the chest.

111 See B. vi. c. 34, and B. xxxvii. c. 32.

112 In B. xxxiv. c. 55. "Pliny speaks of different shades of sandaraca, the pale, or massicot, (yellow oxide of lead), and a mixture of the pale with minium. It also signified Realgar, or red sulphuret of arsenic." —Wornum, in Smith's Diet. Antiq. Art. Colores.

113 Sir H. Davy supposes this colour to have approached our crimson. In painting, it was frequently glazed with purple, to give it an additional lustre.

114 Ecl. iv. 1. 45. "Sponte suâ sandyx pascentes vestiet agnos." Ajasson thinks that "Sandyx" may have been a name common to two colouring substances, a vegetable and a mineral, the former being our madder. Beckmann is of the same opinion, and that Virgil has committed no mistake in the line above quoted. Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 110. Bohn's Edition.See also B. xxiv. c. 56.

115 The form "sand," in these words, Ajasson considers to be derived either from "Sandes," the name of Hercules in Asia Minor, or at least in Lydia: or else from Sandak, the name of an ancestor of Cinyras and Adonis.

116 In B. xxxiii. c. 40. According to Aetius, syricum was made by the calcination of pure ceruse, (similar to the "usta" above mentioned). He states also that there was no difference between sandyx and syricum, the former being the term generally used by medical men.

117 "Black colouring substance."

118 "Carbones infectos." The reading is very doubtful. It may possibly mean "charred bones tainted with dirt." This would make an inferior ivory-black. The earth before-mentioned is considered by Ajasson to be a deuto-sulphate of copper, a solution of which, in gallic acid, is still used for dyeing black. The water near copper-mines would very probably be also highly impregnated with it. Beckmann considers these to have been vitriolic products. Vol. II. p. 265.

119 Our Lamp-black. Vitruvius describes the construction of the manufactories above alluded to.

120 Probably, our Chinese, or Indian ink, a different substance from the indicum of Chapter 27.

121 From τρύξ, "grape-husks," or "wine-lees."

122 Indian ink is a composition of fine lamp-black and size.

123 See B. ii. c. 29. Sepia, for sepic drawing, is now prepared from these juices.

124 In Chapter 12 of this Book.

125 Plate powder. See B. xvii. c. 4, and Chapter 58 of this Book.

126 See B. ix. c. 60.

127 See B. ix. c. 65, and B. xxi. cc. 38, 97. According to Vitruvius, it is a colour between scarlet and purple. It may possibly have been made from woad.

128 See B. iii. c. 16.

129 See B. xxxiii. c. 57.

130 White of egg, probably.

131 Indigo, no doubt, is the colour meant. See B. xxxiii. c. 57.

132 It is the produce of the Indigofera tinctoria, and comes from Bengal more particularly. Beckmann and Dr. Bancroft have each investigated this subject at great length, and though Pliny is greatly mistaken as to the mode in which the drug was produced, they agree in the conclusion that his "indicum" was real indigo, and not, as some have supposed, a pigment prepared from isatis, or woad.

133 This passage, similar in many respects to the account given by Dioscorides, is commented on at great length by Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 263. Bohn's Edition.

134 See Chapter 56 of this Book.

135 See Chapter 30 of this Book.

136 "Armenium." Armenian bole is still used for colouring tooth-powder and essence of anchovies.

137 See B. xxxiii. c. 26.

138 So called, probably, either from the place where it was made, or from the person who first discovered it. Some commentators have suggested that it should be "apian" green, meaning "parsley" colour.

139 So called from "anulus," a "ring," as mentioned below.

140 "Quo muliebres picturæ illuminantur." The meaning of this passage is obscure. It would seem almost to apply to paintings, but Beckmann is of opinion that the meaning is, "This is the beautiful white with which the ladies paint or ornament themselves."—Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 261. Bohn's Edition.

141 Beckmann suggests that it was so called from its being one of the sealing earths, "anulus" being the name of a signet ring. Vol. II. p. 260.

142 "Cretulam."

143 See B. xxxiii. c. 57.

144 See Chapter 39, where this process is more fully described. "'Cerœ,' or 'waxes,' was the ordinary term for painters' colours among the Romans, but more especially encaustic colours, which were probably kept dry in boxes, and the wet brush or pencil was rubbed upon them when colour was required, or they were moistened by the artist previous to commencing work. From the term 'ceræ' it would appear that wax constituted the principal ingredient in the colouring vehicle used; but this does not necessarily follow, and it is very improbable that it did; there must have been a great portion of gum or resin in the colours, or they could not have hardened. Wax was undoubtedly a most essential ingredient, since it apparently prevents the colours from cracking. 'Ceræ' therefore might originally simply mean colours which contained wax, in contradistinction to those which did not; but was afterwards applied generally by the Romans to the colours of painters."—Wornum, Smith's Diet. Antiq. Art. Painting.

145 Called "Inceramenta navium," in Livy, B. xxviii. c. 45. See also Chapters 39 and 41 of this Book.

146 Pliny here commits a mistake, which may have arisen from an imperfect recollection, as Sir. H. Davy has supposed, of a passage in Cicero (Brutus, c. 18), which, however, quite contradicts the statement of Pliny. "In painting, we admire in the works of Zeuxis, Polygnotus, Timanthes, and those who used four colours only, the figure and the lineaments; but in the works of Echion, Nicomachus, Protogenes, and Apelles, everything is perfect." Indeed Pliny contradicts himself, for he speaks of two others colours used by the earliest painters, the testa trita, or ground earthenware, in Chapter 5 of this Book; and "cinnabaris," or vermilion, in B. xxxiii. c. 36. Also, in Chapter 21 of this Book he speaks of Eretrian earth as having been used by Nicomachus, and in Chapter 25 of ivory black as having been invented by Apelles.

147 These painters will all be noticed in Chapter 36.

148 See Chapter 19 of this Book.

149 See B. xxxiii. c. 56.

150 Blue is here excluded altogether, unless under the term "atramentum" we would include black and blue indicum, or in other words, Indian ink and indigo.

151 See Chapter 27 of this Book.

152 In allusion to "Dragon's blood." See B. xxxiii. c. 38.

153 In Chapter 2 of this Book.

154 From the construction of the passage, it is difficult to say whether he means to say that such colossal figures were till then unknown in painting, or whether that the use of canvass in painting was till then unknown. If the latter is the meaning, it is not exactly correct, though it is probable that the introduction of canvass for this purpose was comparatively late; there being no mention of its being employed by the Greek painters of the best periods.

155 See B. iii. c. 9, B. xiv. c. 3, and B. xvi. c. 91.

156 "Toreutæ." For the explanation of this term, see end of B. xxxiii.

157 In reality he was cousin or nephew of Phidias, by the father's side, though Pausanias, B. v. c. 11, falls into the same error as that committed by Pliny. He is mentioned likewise by Strabo and Æschines.

158 See B. xxxvi. c. 55.

159 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.

160 See B. xxxiv. c. 19.

161 See B. vii. c. 39.

162 Paintings with but one colour. "Monochromata," as we shall see in Chapter 36, were painted at all times, and by the greatest masters. Those of Zeuxis corresponded with the Chiariscuri of the Italians, light and shade being introduced with the highest degree of artistic skill.

163 These several artists are quite unknown, being mentioned by no other author.

164 It is pretty clear, from vases of a very ancient date, that it is not the sexual distinction that is here alluded to. Eumarus, perhaps, may have been the first to give to each sex its characteristic style of design, in the compositions, draperies, attitudes, and complexions of the respective sexes. Wornum thinks that, probably, Eumarus, and certainly, Cimon, belonged to the class of ancient tetrachromists, or polychromists, painting in a variety of colours, without a due, or at least a partial, observance of the laws of light and shade. Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

165 He is mentioned also by Ælian. Böttiger is of opinion that he flourished about the 80th Olympiad. It is probable, however, that he lived long before the age of Polygnotus; but some time after that of Eumarus. Wornum thinks that he was probably a contemporary of Solon, a century before Polygnotus.

166 "Catagrapha."

167 This picture was placed in the Pœcile at Athens, and is mentioned also by Pausanias, B. i. c. 15, and by Æschines, Ctesiph. s. 186.

168 See B. vii. c. 57. (Vol. II. p. 233), where he is mentioned as an Athenian. It is not improbable that he became a citizen of Athens in the seventy-ninth Olympiad, B.C. 463, when Thasos was brought under the power of Athens, and, as Sillig suggests, at the solicitation of Cimon, the son of Miltiades. It is generally supposed that he flourished about the eightieth Olympiad.

169 Belonging to the Theatre of Pompey, in the Ninth Region of the City.

170 With scenes from the Trojan War, and the adventures of Ulysses.

171 Or "Variegated;" from its various pictures.

172 See B. xxxiii. c. 56.

173 See B. vii. c. 37.

174 She is again mentioned in Chapter 40.

175 He was a native of Thasos, and father and instructor of Polygnotus. As Pliny has already stated that Polygnotus flourished before the ninetieth Olympiad, there is an inconsistency in his making mention of the son as flourishing before the father. Hence Sillig, with Böttiger, is inclined to think that there were two artists of this name, one about the seventieth, and the other about the ninetieth Olympiad, the former being the father of Polygnotus.

176 "Primusque gloriam penicillo jure contulit." Wornum considers that "the rich effect of the combination of light and shade with colour is clearly expressed in these words."—Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting. This artist, who was noted for his arrogance, is mentioned by other ancient writers.

177 "Penicillus." This was the hair-pencil or brush, which was used by one class of painters, in contradistinction to the stylus or cestrum used for spreading the wax-colours. Painters with the brush used what we should term "water-colours;" oil-colours, in our sense of the word, being unknown to the ancients.

178 In "Magna Græcia," near Crotona, it is supposed. Tzetzes styles him as an Ephesian.

179 This is probably the meaning of the words—"Artem ipsis ablatam Zeuxim ferre secum." It is doubtful whether "ipsis" or "ipsi" is the correct reading.

180 King of Macedonia.

181 μωμήσεται τις μᾶλλον μιμήσεται. This line is attributed by Plutarch to Apollodorus.

182 Cicero and Dionysius of Halicarnassus say that this picture was executed at Crotona, and not at Agrigentum. It is generally supposed to have been the painting of Helena, afterwards mentioned by Pliny.

183 "Ex albo." "That is, in grey and grey, similar to the Chiariscuri of the Italians."—Wornum, in Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

184 "Figlina opera." It is not improbable that this may allude to the painting of fictile vases.

185 A.U.C. 666. As to this expedition of Fulvius Nobilior, see Livy, B. xxxviii.

186 Of Philippus Marcius, in the Ninth Region of the City.

187 In the Eighth Region of the City.

188 See end of B. xxxiii.

189 See end of B. xxxiii. and B. xxxiv.

190 The antithesis seems to require here the reading "inexorabilem," instead of "exorabilem."

191 "Navarchum."

192 The "Chief of the Galli," or high priest of Cybele.

193 See end of B. x.

194 Possibly the person mentioned in B. xi. c. 9, or perhaps the Tragic writer of this name, mentioned in the present Chapter.

195 Bacchus.

196 "Hoplites." A runner in pairoply, or complete armour, at the Olympic Games.

197 The "Liver in luxury." Athenæus, B. xii., confirms this statement, and gives some lines which Parrhasius wrote under certain of his works.

198 Of Achilles, which were awarded to Ulysses in preference to Ajax.

199 We learn from Suetonius that Tiberius possessed a Meleager and Atalanta by Parrhasius, of this nature.

200 Said by Eustathius to have been a native of Sicyon, but by Quintilian, of Cythnos.

201 Cicero, for instance, De Oratore, c. 22, s. 74.

202 Menelaüs.

203 Agamemnon.

204 Built near the Forum, by Vespasian, according to Suetonius.

205 A native of Thebes. A full account of him will be given in the course of this Chapter.

206 Or "Grecian."

207 He was a native of Amphipolis in Macedonia.

208 Phlius was the chief town of Phliasia, in the north-east of Peloponnesus. It seems to be quite unknown to what events Pliny here alludes.

209 Possibly the naval victory gained by the Athenians under Chabrias near Naxos, in the first year of the 101st Olympiad.

210 Which would make the course of study, as M. Ian says, extend over a period of twelve years.

211 "Graphice;" equivalent, perhaps, to our word "drawing." "The elementary process consisted in drawing lines or outlines with the graphis, (or stylus) upon tablets of box; the first exercise was probably to draw a simple line."—Wornum, in Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

212 See end of B. xxxiii.

213 Both of whom are mentioned as statuaries, in the early part of B. xxxiv. c. 19.

214 Bacchus.

215 The generality of Greek writers represent him as a native either of Ephesus, or of Colophon.

216 "Venustas." This word, it has been remarked, will hardly bear a definition. It has been rendered "grace," "elegance," "beauty."

217 "Venerem." The name of the Goddess of Beauty.

218 "Gracefulness."

219 "Secuit." Possibly meaning that he drew another outline in each of these outlines. The meaning, however, is doubtful, and has occasioned much trouble to the commentators. Judging from the words used by Apelles and Protogenes, each in his message, it is not unlikely that the "linea" or outline drawn by each was a profile of himself, and that the profile of Protogenes was drawn within that of Apelles; who, on the second occasion, drew a third profile between the other two, but with a still finer line than either of them. In Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Biography, art. Apelles, it is thus explained: "The most natural explanation of this difficult passage seems to be, that down the middle of the first line of Apelles, Protogenes drew another, so as to divide it into two parallel halves, and that Apelles again divided the line of Protogenes in the same manner."

220 The Latin form of which, as given by Erasmus, is "Nulla dies abeat, quin linea ducta supersit." "Let no day pass by, without an outline being drawn, and left in remembrance."

221 "In pergulâ."

222 "Ne sutor ultra crepidam." Equivalent to our saying, "Let not the shoemaker go beyond his last."

223 In B. vii. c. 38.

224 Also known as "Campaspe," and "Pacate." She was the favourite concubine of Alexander, and is said to have been his first love.

225 "Venus rising out of the waters." Athenæus says, B. xiii., that the courtesan Phryne was his model, whom, at the festival of Neptune, he had seen enter the sea naked at Eleusis.

226 See Matthew xiii. 57; Mark vi. 4. "A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country."

227 "Physiognomists."

228 "Vocatores"—more literally, his "inviting officers."

229 Strabo mentions a portrait of Antigonus in the possession of the inhabitants of Cos.

230 See Note 59 above. Propertius mentions this as his greatest work. B. III. El. 9, 1. 11. "In Veneris tabulâ summam sibi ponit Apelles." "In his picture of Venus, Apelles produces his masterpiece." It is mentioned also by Ovid, Tristia, B. II. 1. 527, and Art. Amor. B. III. 1. 401. The line in B. III. 1. 224 is also well known—
"Nuda Venus madidas exprimit imbre comas."
"And naked Venus wrings her dripping locks."

231 In the Forum, in the Eighth Region of the City.

232 His father by adoption.

233 There are several Epigrams descriptive of it in the Greek Anthology.

234 This, probably, is the meaning of "Tali opere dum laudatur victo sed illustrato," words which have given much trouble to the commentators.

235 Nothing further seems to be known of him.

236 "Cois." The first one was also painted for the people of Cos, by whom it was ultimately sold to Augustus.

237 See Chapter 32 of this Book. That this is an erroneous assertion, has been shown in Note 78 above.

238 Probably the weight of the panel, frame, and ornamental appendages.

239 This word was probably a title, meaning "Keeper of the temple." Strabo tells us that the "megabyzi," or as he calls them, the "megalobyzi," were eunuch priests in the Temple of Artemis, or Diana, at Ephesus.

240 The favourite of Alexander, by whom he was afterwards slain.

241 Probably the name of a rich sensualist who lived at Argos. A son of the Attic orator Lycurgus, one of the sophists, also bore this name.

242 This name is supposed by Sillig to have been inserted erroneously, either by Pliny, or by his transcribers.

243 Either the Argonaut of that name, who was killed by the Caledonian Boar, or else, which is the most probable, a King of the Leleges in Samos, with whom, according to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, originated the saying, "There is many a slip between the cup and the lip;" in reference to his death, by a wild boar, when he was about to put a cup of wine to his mouth.

244 Shown in his forbearing to appropriate them to his own use.

245 Anna Perenna, probably, a Roman divinity of obscure origin, the legends about whom are related in the Fasti of Ovid, B. iii. l. 523. et seq. See also Macrobius, Sat. I. 12. Her sacred grove was near the Tiber, but of her temple nothing whatever is known. "Antoniæ" is another reading, but no such divinity is mentioned by any other author.

246 Sillig (Dict. Anc. Art.) is of opinion that the reading is corrupt here, and that the meaning is, that Apelles "painted a Hero and Leander."

247 Or Demigod.

248 One of the followers of Alexander, ultimately slain by Eumenes in Armenia.

249 King of Macedonia.

250 Odyss. B. vi. 1. 102, et seq.

251 Sir Joshua Reynolds discovers in the account here given "an artist-like description of the effect of glazing, or scumbling, such as was practised by Titian and the rest of the Venetian painters."—Notes to Du Fresnoy.

252 "Lapis specularris." See B. xxxvi. c. 45.

253 He was son of Aristodemus, and brother and pupil of Nicomachus, in addition to Euxenidas, already mentioned in this Chapter. He, Pausanias, and Nicophanes, excelled, as we learn from Athenæus, B. xiii., in the portraits of courtesans; hence their name, πορνόγραφοι.

254 It has been well remarked by Wornum, in the article so often quoted, that "expression of the feelings and passions cannot be denied to Polygnotus, Apollodorus, Parrhasius, Timanthes, and many others."

255 See B. iv. c. 12.

256 Meaning, "Her who has ceased" to live. The reference is to Byblis, who died of love for her brother Caunus. See Ovid's Metam. B. ix. 1. 455, et seq.

257 Or Bacchus. Already mentioned in Chapter 8 of this Book, in reference to the Roman general Mummius.

258 In the Eleventh Region of the City.

259 In the Tenth Region of the City.

260 Celebrated on the 3rd of July.

261 In reference to the age of Apelles, whom he is supposed to have survived.

262 In Caria, near to Lycia. Suidas says that he was born at Xanthus in Lycia.

263 Or Vestibule.

264 Supposed by Sillig to have been an allegorical painting representing two of the sacred ships of the Athenians; but to have been mistaken in later times for a picture of Ulysses and Nausicaa, a subject taken from the Odyssey, B. vi. 1. 16, et seq. As to Paralus, said to have been the first builder of long ships, or ships of war, see B. vii. c. 57.

265 Or "long ships."

266 Son of Cercaphus and Cydippe or Lysippe, and grandson of Apollo. He is said to have been the founder of the town of Ialysus, mentioned in B. v. c. 86.

267 "These four times most probably were, the dead colouring, a first and a second painting, and lastly, scumbling with glazing."—Wornum, Smith's Diet. Antiq. Art. Painting.

268 See Chapter 40 in this Book.

269 "Poppyzonta." "Smacking with his lips." Somewhat similar to the s—s—s—s of our grooms and ostlers.

270 Poliorcetes.

271 "In repose."

272 Phæstis, or Phæstias by name.

273 In B. xxxiv. c. 19.

274 A native of Athens, ranked by Plutarch with Euphranor and Nicias.

275 Tyrant of Elatea, mentioned already in this Chapter. See Note 89.

276 Supposed by Sillig to have been a native of Thebes.

277 Or "Youth;" in the Eighth Region of the City.

278 See B. xiii. c. 5.

279 A round, closely-fitting skull cap, made of felt. St. Jerome, Epist. 120, speaks of Ulysses as being thus represented in paintings. Statues of him with the "pileus" are still to be seen.

280 See B. ii. c. 6.

281 A contemporary of Philip of Macedon.

282 A dithyrambic poet, born at Selinus. He flourished B.C. 398. Only a few lines of his works remain.

283 "Breviores etiamnum quasdam picturæ compendiarias invenit." Delafosse is of opinion that paintings in grotesque are probably meant.

284 His country is uncertain, but he probably lived about the time of Apelles.

285 In Chapter 40 of this Book.

286 He belonged, as Wornum remarks, to the class of genre-painters. or peintres du genre bas, as the French term them. His age and country are unknown.

287 "Painter of low subjects." This term is equivalent in meaning, probably, to our expression—"The Dutch style."

288 "Mæniana." Balustrades or balconies, said to have been so called from one Mænius, who built them.

289 See Chapter 8 of this Book. They are mentioned also in the "Curculio" of Plautus, A. iv. s. i. l. 19. Nothing further is known of Serapio.

290 His country is unknown, but he is supposed to have lived in the first century B.C. See also Chapter 40 of this Book.

291 "Painter of men."

292 Mentioned also by Varro. He probably lived in the time of Alexander the Great.

293 A native of Egypt, compared by many to the most eminent artists. He is spoken of in high terms by Quintilian, B. xii. c. 10. See also Chapter 40 of this Book.

294 Built by Augustus in the Ninth Region of the City, in honour of his sister Octavia.

295 See Chapter 36.

296 Bacchus.

297 And so caused his death by falling from his chariot. See the "Hippolytus" of Euripides.

298 Near the Theatre of Pompey, in the Ninth Region of the City.

299 "Caricatures." Sillig thinks it not unlikely that Gryllus was painted with a pig's face, that animal being signified by the Greek word γρυλλὸς.

300 See Chapter 40 of this Book.

301 See Chapter 6 of this Book.

302 In the original, as given by Sillig, "Plautiu, Marcus Cleœtas." That commentator supposes him to have been a Greek by birth, and adopted into the Plautian family, on being made a citizen of Rome.

303 "Euripi." See B. ii. c. 100, B. viii. c. 40, and B. ix. cc. 22, 80. The landscape paintings on the interior walls of houses at Herculaneum and Pompeii may be taken as specimens of this artist's style.

304 "Succollatis sponsione mulieribus." This passage appears to be a mass of confusion, in spite of Sillig's attempts to amend and explain it. The meaning can only be guessed at, not given with any degree of certainty: of Ludius himself, no further particulars are known.

305 The "hypæthra" or promenades.

306 Most editions give "Famulus." Nothing further is known of him.

307 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

308 Both in the First Region of the City, near the Capenian Gate.

309 See Chapter 41 of this Book, where the difficulties attending this description will be considered.

310 See Chapter 36 of this Book.

311 See Chapter 35 of this Book.

312 Possibly the artist of that name mentioned by Athenæus, B. x., as a tutor of Apelles. If so, he must have flourished about the ninety-seventh Olympiad.

313 Elasippus "inburned" this picture, i. e. executed it in encaustic. From the Attic form of this word, it has been conclnded that he was an Athenian. The spelling of his name is very doubtful.

314 See Chapter 36 of this Book.

315 Two paintings of his at Epidaurus are mentioned by Pausanias, B. ii. c. 27.

316 And not in encaustic; though, as we shall see in Chapter 41, the brush was sometimes used in this branch.

317 The "One day" picture.

318 See B. xxi. c. 3.

319 The "Chaplet-wearer." See B. xxi. c. 3.

320 The "Chaplet-seller."

321 A "correct" copy.

322 "In confracto." Meaning probably the group of the surrounding spectators, on which the shadow of the animal's body was thrown. "It is evident that this artist excelled in his effect of light and shade, enhanced by contrasts, and strong foreshortenings."—Wornum, Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

323 A.U.C. 678. See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

324 Mentioned also in B. xxxiv. c. 19.

325 Praised by Pausanias, B. i. It was in this combat, he says, that Gryllus, the son of Xenophon, and Epaminondas the Theban, first distinguished themselves.

326 "Carne." Beef, according to Plutarch, was the flesh mentioned.

327 The dress of the Greek philosophers, more particularly.

328 Born in the island of Cythnos, one of the Cyclades. He is supposed to be the artist mentioned by Theophrastus, De Lapid. c. 95.

329 It is supposed by Sillig, from Dio Cassius, B. liii. c. 27, that this painting was transferred by M. Vipsanius Agrippa, to the Portico of Neptune.

330 See Chapter 20 of this Book, where he is mentioned as having been the first artist who used "usta" or burnt ceruse. From Pausanias we learn that his remains were interred at Athens, in the road leading to the Academia.

331 Chiaroscuro.

332 In Chapter 10 of this Book.

333 Bacchus.

334 In the Eighth Region of the City.

335 Spoken of by Pausanias, B. iii. c. 19.

336 In the Forum at Rome.

337 See Chapter 36 of this Book, Note 73, p. 261.

338 "Place of the prophecies of the dead;" in reference to the description of the Infernal Regions in the Fourth Book of the Odyssey.

339 See Chapter 37 of this Book.

340 See B. iv. c. 18.

341 Supposed by Hardouin to be the writer mentioned at the end of B. vii. and B. x.: or perhaps, "a chief" of an Athenian tribe.

342 A "group of kindred."

343 A disciple of Carneades. See the list of writers at the end of this Book.

344 B.C. 168.

345 Represented in a sitting posture, as mentioned by Ovid, Trist. II. 525, and by Philostratus, Vit. Apol. B. II. c. 10. The Medea is described in an Epigram in B. iv. of the Greek Anthology, imitated by Ausonius, Epigr, 22.

346 See Note 65 above.

347 Medusa, slain by Perseus.

348 In the former editions, "Mecophanes."

349 Or ochre. See B. xxxiii. c. 56.

350 Health, Brightness, and All-heal.

351 Greek for "sluggard."

352 Probably, from the context, a pupil, also, of Pausias.

353 In pencil painting, and in encaustic.

354 Probably the same painter that is mentioned in Chapter 37.

355 An effect for which Schalken is famous.

356 "Shading his eyes."

357 Son and pupil of Aglaopho, and brother of Polygnotus. He was probably a native of Thasos.

358 See Chapter 36, Note 77, page 261.

359 "Dolus." An emblematical picture evidently, probably representing the events just prior to the capture of Troy.

360 A famous diver, mentioned by Herodotus, B. viii. c. 8, Pausanias, B. x. c. 19, and Strabo, B. ix.

361 Probably the wife of Seleucus, given by him to his son Antiochus. See B. vii. c. 37, Note 38.

362 That they should rebuild the walls of Troy.

363 His contest with Corragus the Macedonian, whom he defeated, is mentioned also by Ælian, Diodorus Siculus, Athenæus, and Quintus Curtius.

364 Gained "without raising the dust," i. e. without any difficulty.

365 This is perhaps the meaning of "stemmata;" "heraldic pictures," probably. See Juvenal, Sat. viii. l. 2.

366 Suidas seems to mention him, under the name of "Ctesiochus," as the brother of Apelles.

367 Who was said to have been born from the thigh of Jove.

368 Or cap; see Chapter 35 of this Book.

369 By Hercules, when he demanded Iole of her father Eurytus, king of Œchalia.

370 See Note 94 above.

371 Several Cratini were distinguished as Comic writers, but we do not read in any other author of any one of them being a painter. The reading is doubtful.

372 A building at the entrance into Athens, whence the "pompæ," or solemn processions, set out.

373 Hardouin thinks that this was the victory gained by Aratus of Sicyon over Aristippus, the Tyrant of Argos. If so, Leontiscus must have flourished about Olymp. 136.

374 Caused by the anger of Juno. In this fit of insanity he slew his wife Megara and her children.

375 See also Chapter 36. From Plutarch we learn that he was greatly in favour with Aratus of Sicyon.

376 According to Brotero, a representation of the Ass and Crocodile was found in the pictorial embellishments at Herculaneum.

377 See B. xvii. c. 36, B. xviii. c. 56, and B. xix. c. 24.

378 "Theodorus" in most of the editions.

379 See Chapter 36 of this Book, page 252.

380 See the Æneid, B. II. c. 403, et seq.

381 Poliorcetes.

382 A native of Samos, mentioned by Quintilian, B. xii. c. 10, as one of the painters between the time of Philip and that of the successors of Alexander.

383 After the murder of his mother.

384 See B. vii. c. 57.

385 Or player with the discus.

386 Against his brother Eteocles.

387 Who assisted Polynices in his siege of Thebes.

388 Helen, Castor, and Pollux.

389 See B. vii. c. 37.

390 Mentioned in Chapter 36, as having been commenced for the people of Cos, but never finished.

391 See B. xxxiv. cc. 19, 39. Sillig is of opinion that the picture mentioned by Pausanias, B. I. c. 1, in honour of Leosthenes, killed in the Lamian War, B.C. 323, was by this artist.

392 Poliorcetes, who began to reign B.C. 306.

393 Already mentioned in this Chapter, at greater length.

394 See B. xxxiv. c. 40.

395 See Chapter 36 of this Book, and the present Chapter. Of the greater part of these artists nothing further is known.

396 See Chapter 35 of this Book.

397 Previously mentioned in this Chapter.

398 Or stylus—"cestrum."

399 Probably the same painter as the one mentioned in Chapter 37 of this Book.

400 See Chapter 39 of this Book. Pausias painted in wax with the cestrum.

401 Wornum is of opinion that this must have been a species of drawing with a heated point, upon ivory, without the use of wax. Smith's Dict. Antiq. Art. Painting.

402 This method, as Wornum remarks, though first employed on ships, was not necessarily confined to ship-painting; and it must have been a very different style of painting from the ship-colouring of Homer, since it was of a later date even than the preceding methods.

403 Though he says nothing here of the use of the "cauterium," or process of burning in, its employment may certainly be inferred from what he has said in Chapter 39. Wornum is of opinion that the definition at the beginning of this Chapter, of two methods apparently, "in wax and on ivory," is in reality an explanation of one method only, and that the ancient modes of painting in encaustic were not only three, but several.

404 Or Temple of the Nymphs. The daughter of Butades is called "Core" by Athenagoras.

405 See B. xxxiv. c. 3.

406 Son of Philæus. He is mentioned by Pausanias, B. viii. c. 14, and by Herodotus, B. iii. c. 60, as the architect of a fine temple at Samos, and, with Smilis and Theodorus, of the Labyrinth at Lemnos.

407 Mentioned also in B. xxxiv. c. 19. Pliny is in error here in using the word "plastice;" for it was the art of casting brass, and not that of making plaster casts, that these artists invented.

408 See Chapter 5 of this Book. He is said by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, B. iii., to have been a member of the family of the Bacchiadæ.

409 A different person, probably, from the one of the same name mentioned in B. vii. c. 56.

410 Terra cotta figures.

411 See B. xxxiv. c. 19. Tatian mentions a statue of Melanippe by Lysistratus.

412 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

413 In the Eleventh Region of the City. This Temple of Ceres, Bacchus, and Proserpine, in the Circus Maximus, was vowed by A. Posthumius, the Dictator, A.U.C. 258, and dedicated by the consul Cassius, A.U.C. 261, or B.C. 493.

414 See B. xxxiv. c. 16.

415 Sillig (Dict. Anc. Art.) is of opinion that this Chalcosthenes is not identical with the artist of that name mentioned in B. xxxiv. c. 19; the name "Ceramicus" probably being of far earlier origin than the formation of the statues of Comedians.

416 "Et." The insertion of this word seems to militate against Sillig's position.

417 The "Pottery.

418 See also B. xxxvi. c. 4.

419 See Chapter 40 of this Book.

420 "Crater." A vase in which wine and water were mixed for drinking.

421 See B. xxxiii. c. 55, B. xxxvi. c. 4, and end of B. xxxiii.

422 See B. xxxiii. c. 36.

423 In B. viii c. 4, for instance.

424 The "Hercules fictilis." It is mentioned by Martial, B. xiv. Ep. 178.

425 See B. xxxiii. c. 2, and B. xxxvii. cc. 7, 8, 11.

426 "Simpuvia."

427 See B. xxxi. c. 31.

428 "Mammatis." The exact meaning of this word is unknown. The passage is evidently in a corrupt state.

429 As to the Roman "Collegia," see B. viii. c. 42, and B. xxxiv. c. 1.

430 "Solia."—The same name is given also to a kind of sitting or re- clining-bath, often mentioned by Pliny.

431 Asia Minor.

432 See B. iii. c. 18.

433 A service of three dishes.

434 See B. ix. c. 39.

435 See B. ix. cc. 24, 28, 74, 79.

436 In B. x. c. 72.

437 See Note 60 above.

438 See B. xxiii. c. 47, and the end of this Book.

439 Martial speaks of this practice, B. iii. Epigr. 81.

440 Nothing further seems to be known of this personage, or of the grounds of his invective. Pliny may possibly allude to some abominable practices, with which Vitellius is charged by Suetonius also.

441 The "Opus Signinum" was a plaster or cement much used for making pavements. It took its name from Signia, in Italy, celebrated for its tiles. See B. iii. c. 9.

442 The floors of the Roman houses were seldom boarded.

443 "Pulvis." See B. iii. c. 9, B. xvi. c. 76, and B. xxxvi. c. 14. He alludes to the cement made of volcanic ashes, now known as "Pozzuolane."

444 See B. iv. c. 17.

445 It being the practice to rub the bodies of the athletes with sand.

446 This circumstance is mentioned also by Suetonius, in his life of Nero. Patrobius was slain by order of the Emperor Galba.

447 Ajasson says that they are called tapias at the present day in Spain.

448 See B. ii. c. 73.

449 "Rubrica."

450 See B. xxxi. c. 28.

451 Which was, as a measure, nearly three inches in breadth. See Introduction to Vol. III.

452 See B. v. c. 32.

453 Ajasson says that these bricks have been imitated by Fabroni, with a light argillaceous earth, found in the territory of Sienna. Delafosse thinks that a place called "Cala," in the Sierra Morena, probably marks the site of the cities above mentioned.

454 See B. iv. c. 5, and B. xxxvi. c. 4.

455 "Gerusia."

456 See B. iii. c. 19.

457 In B. iii. c. 6.

458 See B. xviii. c. 29.

459 "Untouched by fire." Native sulphur.

460 "Gleba."

461 Sulphur has been always considered highly useful for the cure of cutaneous affections.

462 From ἅρπαζω, "to carry away."

463 Ovid, in his "Art of Love," speaks of purifying houses with eggs and sulphur.

464 Ovid, in his "Art of Love," speaks of purifying houses with eggs and sulphur.

465 See B. xxxi. c. 32.

466 There are three distinct kinds of bitumen. 1. Naphtha, also known as petroleum, or rock-oil, inflammable, volatile, soluble in alcohol, and found in France and Italy. 2. Asphalt, or bitumen of Judæa, solid, insoluble in alcohol, and found in Lake Asphaltites in Syria, more particularly. 3. Pissasphalt, of a medium consistency between the other substances, of which it appears to be composed. See B. xxiv. c. 25.

467 In B. v. c. 15

468 Naphtha, most probably.

469 See B. xxiv. c. 25.

470 Chapter 109.

471 As to the "nitrum" of Pliny, see B. xxxi. c. 46.

472 "Asphalt plaster," probably.

473 Or mint. See B. xix. c. 47, and B. xx. c. 53.

474 See B. xxxii. c. 13.

475 In B. xxxiv. c. 9.

476 Beckmann is of opinion that our alum was not known to the Greeks or Romans, and that what the latter called "alumen" was green vitriol, or sulphate of the protoxide of iron, in an impure state. Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 180. Bohn's Edition. Dr. Pereira remarks, however, that "there can be little doubt that Pliny was acquainted with our alum, but did not distinguish it from sulphate of iron, for he informs us that one kind of alum was white, and was used for dyeing wool of bright colours." Materia Medica, Vol. I. Delafosse identifies the "alumen" of Pliny with double sulphate of alum and iron.

477 "Salsugo terræ."

478 See Note 11 above.

479 For gilding, Hardouin says.

480 The Roman provinces in Africa, other than Egypt.

481 Now Strombolo. See B. iii. c. 14.

482 Herodotus, B. ii., mentions the fact that King Amasis sent the people of Delphi a thousand talents of this substance, as his contribution towards rebuilding their temple.

483 "Fruitful," or "useful."

484 "Adulterated."

485 See B. xx. c. 71.

486 "Split" alum. Probably iron alum, the French alum de plume; of a flaky, silky appearance.

487 "Hairy alum."

488 See B. xxxiv. cc. 2, 29.

489 So called, according to Dioscorides, from the "round" form of the pieces.

490 He has previously said that the most esteemed kind was the Egyptian, that of Melos being the next best.

491 στυπτηρία, the "styptic."

492 "Sero picis." Hardouin is of opinion that under this name pisselæon is intended. See B. xv. c. 7, B. xxiv. cc. 11, 24, and B. xxv. c. 22.

493 At the beginning of this Chapter in part.

494 Aluminous silicates, as Delafosse remarks, more or less combined with other minerals. Though employed for various purposes in the arts, they are now but little used in medicine.

495 Probably because it was the more extensively employed of the two, in "collyria," or compositions for the eyes.

496 "Star" earth, apparently 32 From Eretria, in Eubœa. See B. iv. c. 21.

497 In Chapter 21 of this Book.

498 In Chapter 21 of this Book.

499 It appears to be a matter of doubt whether it was found at Selinus, in Sicily, or the place of that name in Cilicia. See B. iii. c. 14, and B. v. c. 22.

500 Agricola is of opinion that this earth had its name from the place called Pnigeum, in the Libyan Mareotis. Other commentators would have it to be derived from πνίγω, "to suffocate," such being its effect if taken internally.

501 See the next Chapter.

502 So called from ἀμπέλος, a "vine;" either because it was applied to vines to kill the insects, or because its admixture with the soil was favourable to the cultivation of the vine.

503 "Washes for beautifying the eye-brows." See B. xxi. c. 73, B. xxiii. c. 51, and B. xxxiii. c. 34.

504 Cimolian earth, known in modern chemistry as Cimolite, is not a cretaceous earth, but an aluminous silicate, still found in the island of Kimoli, or Argentiera, one of the Cyclades; See B. iv. c. 23. Tournefort describes it as a white chalk, very heavy, tasteless, and dissolving in water. It is found also at Alexandrowsk in Russia.

505 See Chapter 25 of this Book.

506 See B. xxxi. c. 46.

507 See B. xii. c. 51.

508 See B. v. c. 28.

509 Beckmann thinks that this may have been our common chalk. Vol. II. p. 105.

510 This seems to be the meaning of "crescit in macerando."

511 A.U.C. 535, it is supposed.

512 As a plebiscitum.

513 "Desquamatur." This is most probably the meaning of the word, though Beckmann observes "that it was undoubtedly a term of art, which cannot be further explained, because we are unacquainted with the operation to which it alludes."—Vol II. p. 104. Bohn's Edition.

514 " Funditur sulphure." The meaning of these words is very doubtful. Beckmann proposes to read "offenditur," but he is not supported by any of the MSS. He has evidently mistaken the meaning of the whole passage.

515 Probably because it was too calcareous, Beckmann thinks.

516 See B. iv. c. 3, and B. xxxvi. c. 59.

517 Plate powder; from "argentum," "silver." See B. xvii. c. 4.

518 Whitening, or chalk washed and prepared, is still used for this purpose.

519 The goal for the chariots.

520 This reading is restored by Sillig from the Bamberg MS., but no particulars are known relative to the person alluded to; unless, indeed, as Sillig suspects to be the case, he is identical with Publius Syrus, the writer of mimes, mentioned in B. viii. c. 77.

521 Supposed by some to have been the Manilius who was author of the poem called "Astronomica," still in existence. It is more probable, however, that he was the father of the poet, or perhaps the grandfather; as it is clear from a passage in Suetonius, that Staberius Eros taught at Rome during the civil wars of Sylla, while the poem must have been written, in part at least, after the death of Augustus.

522 Being afterwards manumitted. Sillig thinks that they may have arrived in Rome about B.C. 90.

523 "Catasta." A raised platform of wood on which the slaves were exposed for sale.

524 "Rectorem." For an explanation of this allusion, see B. xxviii. c. 14.

525 A native of Gadara in Syria, according to Josephus. Seneca speaks of him as being more wealthy than his master.

526 Or Menodorus, who deserted Sextus Pompeius and went over to Octavianus.

527 Who remained faithful to Pompeius, and died in his cause.

528 He is probably speaking in reference to her paramour, the freedman Pallas. See B. xxxiii. c. 47.

529 As to the earths of Galata and Clypea, see B. v. c. 7. The others are mentioned in B. iii. c. 11.

530 See end of B. ix.

531 See end of B. xxxiv.

532 See end of B. viii.

533 See end of Books vii. and xiv.

534 See end of B. ii.

535 See end of B. iii.

536 See end of B. ii.

537 See end of B. x.

538 See end of B. ii.

539 See end of B. vii.

540 See end of B. xvi.

541 A native of Longula in Latium. Though of dissolute character, he was famous as an orator and satirical writer. It was he who accused Nonius Asprenas of poisoning, as mentioned in Chapter 46 of this Book. He died in exile at the island of Seriphos, about A.D. 33. His works were at first proscribed, but were afterwards permitted by Caligula to be read.

542 See end of B. vii.

543 See end of B. xxxiii.

544 The painter, mentioned at great length in Chapter 36 of this Book, and elsewhere.

545 A painter of Sicyon, mentioned in Chapters 32 and 36 of this Book.

546 Probably the painter of that name, mentioned in Chapter 36 of this Book.

547 The artist mentioned in B. xxxiv. c. 19, and in Chapter 40 of the present Book.

548 See end of B. xxxiii.

549 Possibly the painter of that name, mentioned in Chapter 40 of this Book.

550 See end of B. ii.

551 See end of B. iii.

552 See end of B. xxx.

553 See end of B. iii.

554 See end of B. xii.

555 See end of Books iv., viii., xi., and xx.

556 See end of B. xx.

557 See end of Books iv. and xii.

558 See end of B. xii.

559 See end of B. xiii.

560 See end of B. xii.

561 See end of B. xii.

562 See end of B. xxix.

563 See end of B. xii.

564 See end of B. xii.

565 See end of B. xxxiii.

566 See end of B. xxxiii.

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