previous next


The Greeks have given the name of Libya1 to Africa, and have called the sea that lies in front of it the Libyan Sea. It has Egypt for its boundary, and no part of the earth is there that has fewer gulfs or inlets, its shores extending in a lengthened line from the west in an oblique direction. The names of its peoples, and its cities in especial, cannot possibly be pronounced with correctness, except by the aid of their own native tongues. Its population, too, for the most part dwells only in fortresses2.

(1.) On our entrance into Africa, we find the two Mauritanias, which, until the time of Caius Cæsar3, the son of Germanicus, were kingdoms; but, suffering under his cruelty, they were divided into two provinces. The extreme promontory of Africa, which projects into the ocean, is called Ampelusia4 by the Greeks. There were formerly two towns, Lissa and Cotte5, beyond the Pillars of Hercules; but, at the present day, we only find that of Tingi6, which was for- merly founded by Antæus, and afterwards received the name of Traducta Julia7, from Claudius Cæsar, when he established a colony there. It is thirty miles distant from Belon8, a town of Bætica, where the passage across is the shortest. At a distance of twenty-five miles from Tingi, upon the shores of the ocean9, we come to Julia Constantia Zilis10, a colony of Augustus. This place is exempt from all subjection to the kings of Mauritania, and is included in the legal jurisdiction of Bætica. Thirty-two miles distant from Julia Constantia is Lixos11, which was made a Roman colony by Claudius Cæsar, and which has been the subject of such wondrous fables, related by the writers of antiquity. At this place, according to the story, was the palace of Antaeus; this was the scene of his combat with Hercules, and here were the gardens of the Hesperides12. An arm of the sea flows into the land here, with a serpentine channel, and, from the nature of the locality, this is interpreted at the present day as having been what was really represented by the story of the dragon keeping guard there. This tract of water surrounds an island, the only spot which is never overflowed by the tides of the sea, although not quite so elevated as the rest of the land in its vicinity. Upon this island, also, there is still in existence the altar of Hercules; but of the grove that bore the golden fruit, there are no traces left, beyond some wild olive-trees. People will certainly be the less surprised at the marvellous falsehoods of the Greeks, which have been related about this place and the river Lixos13, when they reflect that some of our own14 countrymen as well, and that too very recently, have related stories in reference to them hardly less monstrous; how that this city is remarkable for its power and extensive influence, and how that it is even greater than Great Carthage ever was; how, too, that it is situate just opposite to Carthage, and at an almost immeasurable distance from Tingi, together with other details of a similar nature, all of which Cornelius Nepos has believed with the most insatiate credulity15.

In the interior, at a distance of forty miles from Lixos, is Babba16, surnamed Julia Campestris, another colony of Augustus; and, at a distance of seventy-five, a third, called Banasa17, with the surname of Valentia. At a distance of thirty-five miles from this last is the town of Volubilis, which is just that distance also from both18 seas. On the coast, at a distance of fifty miles from Lixos, is the river Subur19, which flows past the colony of Banasa, a fine river, and available for the purposes of navigation. At the same distance from it is the city of Sala20, situate on a river which bears the same name, a place which stands upon the very verge of the desert, and though infested by troops of elephants, is much more exposed to the attacks of the nation of the Autololes, through whose country lies the road to Mount Atlas, the most fabulous21 locality even in Africa.

It is from the midst of the sands, according to the story, that this mountain22 raises its head to the heavens; rugged and craggy on the side which looks toward the shores of the ocean to which it has given its name, while on that which faces the interior of Africa it is shaded by dense groves of trees, and refreshed by flowing streams; fruits of all kinds springing up there spontaneously to such an extent, as to more than satiate every possible desire. Throughout the daytime, no inhabitant is to be seen; all is silent, like that dreadful stillness which reigns in the desert. A religious horror steals imperceptibly over the feelings of those who approach, and they feel themselves smitten with awe at the stupendous aspect of its summit, which reaches beyond the clouds, and well nigh approaches the very orb of the moon. At night, they say, it gleams with fires innumerable lighted up; it is then the scene of the gambols of the Ægipans23 and the Satyr crew, while it re-echoes with the notes of the flute and the pipe, and the clash of drums and cymbals. All this is what authors of high character have stated, in addition to the labours which Hercules and Perseus there experienced. The space which intervenes before you arrive at this mountain is immense, and the country quite unknown.

There formerly existed some Commentaries written by Hanno24, a Carthaginian general, who was commanded, in the most flourishing times of the Punic state, to explore the sea-coast of Africa. The greater part of the Greek and Roman writers have followed him, and have related, among other fabulous stories, that many cities there were founded by him, of which no remembrance, nor yet the slightest vestige, now exists.

While Scipio Æmilianus held the command in Sicily, Polybius the historian received a fleet from him for the purpose of proceeding on a voyage of discovery in this part of the world. He relates, that beyond25 Mount Atlas, pro- ceeding in a westerly direction, there are forests filled with wild beasts, peculiar to the soil of Africa, as far as the river Anatis26, a distance of 485 miles, Lixos being distant from it 205 miles. Agrippa says, that Lixos is distant from the Straits of Gades 112 miles. After it we come to a gulf which is called the Gulf of Saguti27, a town situate on the Promontory of Mulelacha28, the rivers Subur and Salat29, and the port of Rutubis30, distant from Lixos 213 miles We then come to the Promontory of the Sun31, the port of Risardir32, the Gætulian Autololes, the river Cosenus33, the nations of the Selatiti and the Masati, the river Masathat34, and the river Darat35, in which crocodiles are found. After this we come to a large gulf, 61636 miles in extent, which is enclosed by a promontory of Mount Barce37, which runs out in a westerly direction, and is called Surrentium38. Next comes the river Salsus39, beyond which lie the Æthiopian Perorsi, at the back of whom are the Pharusii40, who are bordered upon by the Gætulian Daræ41, lying in the interior. Upon the coast again, we find the Æthiopian Daratitæ, and the river Bambotus42, teeming with crocodiles and hippopotami. From this river there is a continuous range43 of mountains till we come to the one which is known by the name of Theon Ochema44, from which to the Hesperian Promontory45 is a voyage of ten days and nights; and in the middle of this space he46 has placed Mount Atlas, which by all other writers has been stated to be in the extreme parts of Mauritania.

The Roman arms, for the first time, pursued their conquests into Mauritania, under the Emperor Claudius, when the freedman Ædemon took up arms to avenge the death of King Ptolemy47, who had been put to death by Caius Cæsar; and it is a well-known fact, that on the flight of the barbarians our troops reached Mount Atlas. It became a boast, not only among men of consular rank, and generals selected from the senate, who at that time held the command, but among persons of equestrian rank as well, who after that period held the government there, that they had penetrated as far as Mount Atlas. There are, as we have already stated, five Roman colonies in this province; and it may very possibly appear, if we listen only to what report says, that this mountain is easily accessible. Upon trial, however, it has been pretty generally shown, that all such statements are utterly fallacious; and it is too true, that men in high station, when they are disinclined to take the trouble of inquiring into the truth, through a feeling of shame at their ignorance arc not averse to be guilty of falsehood; and never is implicit credence more readily given, than when a falsehood is supported by the authority of some personage of high consideration. For my own part, I am far less surprised that there are still some facts remaining undiscovered by men of the equestrian order, and even those among them who have attained senatorial rank, than that the love of luxury has left anything unascertained; the impulse of which must be great indeed, and most powerfully felt, when the very forests are ransacked for their ivory and citron-wood48, and all the rocks of Gætulia are searched for the murex and the purple.

From the natives, however, we learn, that on the coast, at a distance of 150 miles from the Salat, the river Asana49 presents itself; its waters are salt, but it is remarkable for its fine harbour. They also say that after this we come to a river known by the name of Fut50, and then, after crossing another called Vior which lies on the road, at a distance of 200 miles we arrive at Dyris51, such being the name which in their language they give to Mount Atlas. According to their story there are still existing in its vicinity many vestiges which tend to prove that the locality was once inhabited; such as the remains of vineyards and plantations of palm-trees.

Suetonius Paulinus52, whom we have seen Consul in our own time, was the first Roman general who advanced a distance of some miles beyond Mount Atlas. He has given us the same information as we have received from other sources with reference to the extraordinary height of this mountain, and at the same time he has stated that all the lower parts about the foot of it are covered with dense and lofty forests composed of trees of species hitherto unknown. The height of these trees, he says, is remarkable; the trunks are without knots, and of a smooth and glossy surface; the foliage is like that of the cypress, and besides sending forth a powerful odour, they are covered with a flossy down, from which, by the aid of art, a fine cloth might easily be manufactured, similar to the textures made from the produce of the silk-worm. He informs us that the summit of this mountain is covered with snow even in summer, and says that having arrived there after a march of ten days, he proceeded some distance beyond it as far as a river which bears the name of Ger53; the road being through deserts covered with a black sand54, from which rocks that bore the appearance of having been exposed to the action of fire, projected every here and there; localities rendered quite uninhabitable by the intensity of the heat, as he himself experienced, although it was in the winter season that he visited them. We also learn from the same source that the people who inhabit the adjoining forests, which are full of all kinds of elephants, wild beasts, and serpents, have the name of Canarii; from the circumstance that they partake of their food in common with the canine race, and share with it the entrails of wild beasts.

It is a well-known fact, that adjoining to these localities is a nation of Æthiopians, which bears the name of Perorsi. Juba, the father of Ptolemy, who was the first king55 who reigned over both the Mauritanias, and who has been rendered even more famous by the brilliancy of his learning than by his kingly rank, has given us similar information relative to Mount Atlas, and states that a certain herb grows there, which has received the name of 'euphorbia'56 from that of his physician, who was the first to discover it. Juba extols with wondrous praises the milky juice of this plant as tending to improve the sight, and acting as a specific against the bites of serpents and all kinds of poison; and to this subject alone he has devoted an entire book. Thus much, if indeed not more than enough, about Mount Atlas.

(2.) The province of Tingitana is 170 miles in length57. Of the nations in this province the principal one was formerly that of the Mauri58, who have given to it the name of Mauritania, and have been by many writers called the Maurusii59. This nation has been greatly weakened by the disasters of war, and is now dwindled down to a few families only60. Next to the Mauri was formerly the nation of the Massæsyli61; they in a similar manner have become extinct. Their country is now occupied by the Gætulian nations62, the Baniuræ63, the Autololes64, by far the most powerful people among them all, and the Vesuni, who formerly were a part of the Autololes, but have now separated from them, and, turning their steps towards the Æthiopians65, have formed a distinct nation of their own. This province, in the mountainous district which lies on its eastern side produces elephants, as also on the heights of Mount Abyla66 and among those elevations which, from the similarity of their height, are called the Seven Brothers67. Joining the range of Abyla these mountains overlook the Straits of Gades. At the extremity of this chain begin the shores of the inland sea68 and we come to the Tamuda69, a navigable stream, with the site of a former town of the same name, and then the river Laud70, which is also navigable for vessels, the town and port of Rhysaddir71, and Malvane72, a navigable stream.

The city of Siga73, formerly the residence of King Syphax, lies opposite to that of Malaca74 in Spain: it now belongs to the second75 Mauritania. But these countries, I should remark, for a long time retained the names of their respective kings, the further Mauritania being called the "land of Bogud76," while that which is now called Cæsariensis was called the "country of Bocchus." After passing Siga we come to the haven called "Portus Magnus77" from its great extent, with a town whose people enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, and then the river Mulucha78, which served as the limit between the territory of Bocchus and that of the Massæsyli. Next to this is Quiza Xenitana79, a town founded by strangers, and Arsenaria80, a place with the ancient Latin rights, three miles distant from the sea. We then come to Cartenna81, a colony founded under Augustus by the second legion, and Gunugum82, another colony founded by the same emperor, a prætorian cohort being established there; the Promontory of Apollo83, and a most celebrated city, now called Cæsarea84, but formerly known by the name of Iol; this place was the residence of King Juba, and received the rights of a colony from the now deified Emperor Claudius. Oppidum Novum85 is the next place; a colony of veterans was established here by command of the same emperor. Next to it is Tipasa86, which has received Latin rights, as also Icasium87, which has been presented by the Emperor Vespasianus with similar rights; Rusconiæ88, a colony founded by Augustus; Rusucurium89, honoured by Claudius with the rights of Roman citizens; Ruzacus90, a colony founded by Augustus; Salde91, another colony founded by the same emperor; Igilgili92, another; and the town of Tucca93, situate on the sea-shore and upon the river Ampsaga. In the interior are the colony of Augusta, also called Succabar94, Tubusuptus95, the cities of Timici and Tigavæ96, the rivers Sardabal97, Aves98, and Nabar99, the nation of the Macurebi, the river Usar100, and the nation of the Nababes. The river Ampsaga is distant from Cæsarea 322101 miles. The length of the two Mauritanias is 1038, and their breadth 467 miles.

1 Not reckoning under that appellation the country of Egypt, which was more generally looked upon as forming part of Asia. Josephus informs us that Africa received its name from Ophir, great-grandson of Abraham and his second wife, Keturah.

2 Castella,' fortified places, erected for the purpose of defence; not towns formed for the reception of social communities.

3 The Emperor Caligula, who, in the year 41 A.D., reduced the two Mauritanias to Roman provinces, and had King Ptolemy, the son of Juba, put to death.

4 Now Cape Spartel. By Scylax it is called Hermæum, and by Ptolemy and Strabo Cote, or Coteis. Pliny means "extreme," with reference to the sea-line of the Mediterranean, in a direction due west.

5 Mentioned again by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 6. Lissa was so called, according to Bochart, from the Hebrew or Phœnician word liss, 'a lion.' At the present day there is in this vicinity a headland called the 'Cape of the Lion.' Bochart thinks that the name 'Cotta,' or 'Cotte,' was derived from the Hebrew quothef, a 'vine-dresser.'

6 The modern Tangier occupies its site. It was said to have derived its name from Tinge, the wife of Antæus, the giant, who was slain by Hercules. His tomb, which formed a hill, in the shape of a man stretched out at full length, was shown near the town of Tingis to a late period. It was also believed, that whenever a portion of the earth covering the body was taken away, it rained until the hole was filled up again. Sertorius is said to have dug away a portion of the hill; but, on discovering a skeleton sixty cubits in length, he was struck with horror, and had it immediately covered again. Procopius says, that the fortress of this place was built by the Canaanites, who were driven by the Jews out of Palestine.

7 It has been supposed by Salmasius and others of the learned, that Pliny by mistake here attributes to Claudius the formation of a colony which was really established by either Julius Cæsar or Augustus. It is more probable, however, that Claudius, at a later period, ordered it to be called "Traducta Julia," or "the removed Colony of Julia," in remembrance of a colony having proceeded thence to Spain in the time of Julius Cæsar. Claudius himself, as stated in the text, established a colony here.

8 Its ruins are to be seen at Belonia, or Bolonia, three Spanish miles west of the modern Tarifa.

9 At this point Pliny begins his description of the western side of Africa.

10 Now Arzilla, in the territory of Fez. Ptolemy places it at the mouth of the river Zileia. It is also mentioned by Strabo and Antoninus.

11 Now El Araiche, or Larache, on the river Lucos.

12 Mentioned again in B. ix. c. 4 and c. 5 of the present Book, where Pliny speaks of them as situate elsewhere. The story of Antæus is further enlarged upon by Solinus, B. xxiv.; Lucan, B. iv. 1. 589, et seq.; and Martianus Capella, B. vi.

13 Now the Lucos.

14 Hardouin is of opinion, that he here has a hit at Gabinius, a Roman author, who, in his Annals of Mauritania, as we learn from Strabo (B. xvii.), inserted numerous marvellous and incredible stories.

15 When we find Pliny accusing other writers of credulity, we are strongly reminded of the proverb, 'Clodius accusat mœchos.'

16 Or the "Julian Colony on the Plains." Marcus suggests that the word Babba may possibly have been derived from the Hebrew or Phœnician word beab or beaba, "situate in a thick forest." Poinsinet takes Babba to be the Beni-Tuedi of modern times. D'Anville thinks that it is Naranja.

17 There is considerable difficulty about the site of Banasa. Moletius thinks that it is the modern Fanfara, or Pefenfia as Marmol calls it. D'Anville suggests that it may be Old Mahmora, on the coast; but, on the other hand, Ptolemy places it among the inland cities, assigning to it a longitude at some distance from the sea. Pliny also appears to make it inland, and makes its distance from Lixos seventy-five miles, while he makes the mouth of the Subur to be fifty miles from the same place.

18 From both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. According to Poinsinet, Volubilis was the synonym of the African name Fez, signifying a 'band,' or 'swathe.' Mannert conjectures that it is the same as the modern Walili, or Qualili. D'Anville calls it Guulili, and says that there are some remains of antiquity there.

19 The modern Subu, or Sebou. D'Anville is of opinion that this river has changed a part of its course since the time of Pliny.

20 Most probably the modern Sallee stands on its site.

21 Not in reference to the fact of its existence, but the wonderful stories which were told respecting it.

22 Like others of the ancient writers, Pliny falls into the error of considering Atlas, not as an extensive chain of mountains, but as an isolated mountain, surrounded by sands. With reference to its height, the whole range declines considerably from west to east; the highest summits in Morocco reaching near 13,000 feet, in Tunis not 5000.

23 Or "Goat-Pans;" probably another name for the Fauni, or Fauns. More usually, there is but one Ægipan mentioned,—the son, according to Hyginus, of Zeus or Jupiter, and a goat,—or of Zeus and Æga, the wife of Pan. As a foundation for one part of the stories here men- tioned, Brotier suggests the fact, that as the Kabyles, or mountain tribes, are in the habit of retiring to their dwellings and reposing during the heat of the day, it would not, consequently, be improbable that they would devote the night to their amusements, lighting up fires, and dancing to the music of drums and cymbals.

24 Under his name we still possess a "Periplus," or account of a voyage round a part of Libya. The work was originally written in Punic, but what has come down to us is a Greek translation. We fail, however, to discover any means by which to identify him with any one of the many Carthaginians of the same name. Some writers call him king, and others dux, or imperator of the Carthaginians; from which we may infer, that he held the office of suffetes. This expedition has by some been placed as far back as the time of the Trojan war, or of Hesiod, while others again place it as late as the reign of Agathocles. Falconer, Bougainville, and Gail, place the time of Hanno at about B.C. 570, while other critics identify him with Hanno, the father or son of Hamilcar, who was killed at Himera, B.C. 480. Pliny often makes mention of him; more particularly see B. viii. c. 21.

25 M. Gosselin thinks that the spot here indicated was at the south-western extremity of the Atlas range, and upon the northern frontier of the Desert of Zahara.

26 Supposed by some geographers to be the same as that now called the Ommirabih, or the Om-Rabya. This is also thought by some to have been the same river as is called by Pliny, in p. 381, by the name of Asana; but the distances do not agree.

27 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present bay of Al-cazar, on the African coast, in the Straits of Cadiz; though Hardouin takes it to be the κόλπος ἐμπορικὸς, or "Gulf of Commerce," of Strabo and Ptolemy. By first quoting from one, and then at a tangent from another, Pliny involves this subject in almost inextricable confusion.

28 Probably the place called Thymiaterion in the Periplus of Hanno.

29 The present Subu, and the river probably of Sallee, previously mentioned.

30 The modern Mazagan, according to Gosselin.

31 Cape Cantin, according to Gosselin; Cape Blanco, according to Marcus.

32 Probably the Safi, Asafi, or Saffee of the present day.

33 The river Tensift, which runs close to the city of Morocco, in the interior.

34 The river Mogador of the present day.

35 The modern river Sus, or Sous.

36 The learned Gosselin has aptly remarked, that this cannot be other than an error, and that "ninety-six" is the correct reading, the Gulf of Sainte-Croix being evidently the one here referred to.

37 Mount Barce seems to be here a name for the Atlas, or Daran chain.

38 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present Cape Ger.

39 The river Assa, according to Gosselin. There is also a river Suse placed here in the maps.

40 These two tribes probably dwelt between the modern Capes Ger and Non.

41 Marcus believes these to have been the ancestors of the present race of the Touaricks, while the Melanogætuli were the progenitors of the Tibbos, of a darker complexion, and more nearly resembling the negroes in bodily conformation.

42 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present river Nun, or Non. According to Bochart, this river received its name from the Hebrew or Phoenician word behemoth or bamoth, the name by which Job (xl. 15) calls the crocodile [or rather the hippopotamus]. Bochart, however, with Mannert, Bougainville, De Rennet, and De Heeren, is of opinion, that by this name the modern river Senegal is meant. Marcus is of opinion that it is either the Non or the modern Sobi.

43 Marcus here observes, that from Cape Alfach, below Cape Non, there are no mountains, but continual wastes of sand, bordering on the sea-shore. Indeed there is no headland, of any considerable height, between Cape Sobi and Cape Bajador.

44 The Chariot of the Gods." Marcus is of opinion that it is the modern Cape Verde; while, on the other hand, Gosselin takes it to be Cape Non. Brotier calls it Cape Ledo.

45 In B. vi. c. 36, Pliny speaks of this promontory as the "Hesperian Horn," and says that it is but four days' sail from the Theon Ochema. Brotier identifies this promontory with the modern Cape Roxo. Marcus is of opinion that it was the same as Cape Non ; but there is considerable difficulty in determining its identity.

46 Alluding to Polybius; though, according to the reading which Sillig has adopted a few lines previously, Agrippa is the last author mentioned. Pliny has here mistaken the meaning of Polybius, who has placed Atlas midway between Carthage, from which he had set out, and the Promontory of Theon Ochema, which he reached.

47 Ptolemy the son of Juba II. and Cleopatra, was summoned to Rome in the year A.D. 40, by Caligula, and shortly after put to death by him, his riches having excited the emperor's cupidity. Previously to this, he had been on terms of strict alliance with the Roman people, who had decreed him a toga picta and a sceptre, as a mark of their friendship.

48 Ivory and citron-wood, or cedar, were used for the making and inlaying of the tables used by the Roman nobility. See B. xiii. c. 23.

49 Supposed by some geographers to be the modern Wadi-Tensift. It has been also confounded with the Anatis (see note 1, p. 369); while others again identify it with the Anidus. It is more commonly spelt 'Asama.'

50 Or Phuth. It does not appear to have been identified.

51 The range is still called by the name of Daran.

52 The same general who afterwards conquered the Britons under Boadicea or Bonduca. While Proprætor in Mauritania under the Emperor Claudius, in the year A.D. 42, he defeated the Mauri who had risen in revolt, and advanced, as Pliny here states, as far as Mount Atlas. It is not known from what point Paulinus made his advance towards the Atlas range. Mannert and Marcus are of opinion that he set out from Sala, the modern Sallee, while Latreille, Malte Brun, and Walkenaer think that his point of departure was the mouth of the river Lixos. Sala was the most southerly town on the western coast of Africa that in the time of Pliny had submitted to the Roman arms.

53 Some of the editions read 'Niger' here. Marcus suggests that that river may have been called 'Niger' by the Phœnician or Punic colonists of the western Mauritania, and 'Ger' or' Gar' in another quarter. The same writer also suggests that the Sigilmessa was the river to which Paulinus penetrated on his march beyond Atlas.

54 The Sigilmessa, according to Marmol, flows between several mountains which appear to be of a blackish hue.

55 Bocchus however, the kinsman of Massinissa, had previously for some time reigned over both the Mauritanias, consisting of Mauritania Tingitana and Mauritania Cæsariana.

56 See B. xxv. c. 7. 12, and B. xxvi. c. 8.

57 Extending from the sea to the river Moluga, now called the Molucha and Molochath, or Malva and Malvana.

58 From whom the Moors of the present day take their name. Marcus observes here, that though Pliny distinguishes the Mauri from the Gætuli, they essentially belonged to the same race and spoke the same language, the so-called Berber, and its dialects, the Schellou and the Schoviah.

59 Maursii' was the Greek name, 'Mauri' the Latin, for this people. Marcus suggests that Mauri was a synonym only for the Greek word nomades, 'wanderers.'

60 As Marcus observes, Pliny is here greatly in error. On the inroads of Paulinus, the Mauri had retreated into the interior and taken refuge in the deserts of Zahara, whence they had again emerged in the time of the geographer Ptolemy.

61 From the time of the second Punic War this people had remained in undisputed possession of the country situate between the rivers Molochath or Moluga and Ampsaga, which formed the Cæsarian Mauritania. Ptolemy speaks of finding some remains of them at Siga, a town situate on a river of the same name, and at which King Syphax had formerly resided.

62 While Pomponius Mela does not make any difference between the Mauri and the Gætuli, Pliny here speaks of them as being essentially different.

63 Derived, according to Marcus, from the Arabic compound bani-our, 'child of nakedness,' as equivalent to the Greek word gymnetes, by which name Pliny and other ancient writers designate the wandering naked races of Western Africa.

64 The Autololes or, as Ptolemy calls them, the Autolole, dwelt, it is supposed, on the western coast of Africa, between Cape Cantin and Cape Ger. Their city of Autolala or Autolalæ is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical observation, having the longest day thirteen hours and a half, being distant three hours and a half west of Alexandria, and having the sun vertical once a year, at the time of the winter solstice. Reichard takes it for the modern Agulon or Aquilon.

65 The Æthiopian Daratitæ, Marcus says.

66 The present Ceuta.

67 They were so called from the circumstance, Marcus says, of their peaks being so numerous, and so strongly resembling each other. They are now called, according to D'Anville, 'Gebel Mousa,' which means "the Mountain of Apes," an animal by which they are now much frequented, instead of by elephants as in Pliny's time.

68 Or Mediterranean.

69 The modern Bedia, according to Olivarius, the Tasanel, according to Dupinet, and the Alamos or Kerkal, according to Ansart. Marcus says that it is called the Setuan, and is the largest stream on the northern shores of Western Africa.

70 The modern Gomera according to Hardouin, the Nocor according to Mannert.

71 The modern Melilla most probably.

72 The modern Maluia. Antoninus calls it Malva, and Ptolemy Maloua.

73 Its site is occupied by the modern Aresgol, according to Mariana, Guardia or Sereni according to Dupinet, Ned-Roma according to Mannert and D'Anville, and Tachumbrit according to Shaw. Marcus is inclined to be of the same opinion as the last-mentioned geographer.

74 Now the city of Malaga.

75 Mauritania Cæsariensis, or Cæsarian Mauritania, now forming the French province of Algiers.

76 "Bogudiana;" from Bogud or Bogoas. The last king Bogud was deprived of his kingdom by Bocchus, king of Mauritania Cæsariensis, a warm partisan of Cæsar.

77 Or the "Great Harbour," now Arzeu according to D'Anville, and Mars-el-Kebir according to Marcus.

78 The same river probably as the Malva or Malvana previously mentioned, the word mulucha or malacha coming from the Greek μολόχη, "a marsh mallow," which malva, as a Latin word, also signifies. See p. 383.

79 From the Greek word ξένος, "a stranger." Pomponius Mela and Antoninus call this place Guiza, and Ptolemy Quisa. D'Anville places it on the right side of the river Malvana or Mulucha, and Shaw says that it was situate in the vicinity of the modern town of Oran.

80 Now Marz-Agolet, or situate in its vicinity, according to Hardouin and Ansart, and the present Arzen, according to Marcus, where numerous remains of antiquity are found.

81 Now Tenez, according to D'Anville, and Mesgraïm, according to Mannert; with which last opinion Marcus agrees.

82 Ptolemy and Antoninus place this colony to the east of the Promontory of Apollo, and not the west as Pliny does.

83 The present Cape Mestagan.

84 According to Dupinet and Mannert, the modern Tenez occupies its site, Zershell according to Hardouin and Shaw, Vacur according to D'Anville and Ansart, and Algiers according to others. It is suggested by Marcus that the name Iol is derived from the Arabic verb galla, "to be noble" or "famous." There is no doubt that the magnificent ruins at Zershell are those of Iol, and that its name is an abbreviation of Cæsarea Iol.

85 Or New Town.

86 Scylax calls it Thapsus; Ammianus Marcellinus, Tiposa. According to Mannert it was situate in the vicinity of the modern Damas.

87 Or Icosium. It has been identified by inscriptions discovered by the French as standing on the same site as the modern Algiers. D'Anville, Mannert and others identify it with Scherchell or Zershell, thus placing it too far west. Mannert was evidently misled by an error in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast are, for a considerable distance, thrown too far to the west; the researches however which followed the French conquest of the country have revealed inscriptions which completely set the question at rest.

88 According to Mannert, this was situate on the modern Cape Arbatel. Marcus thinks that the Hebrew ros, or Arab ras, "a rock," enters into the composition of the word.

89 Now Hur according to D'Anville, Colcah according to Mannert.

90 The modern Acor, according to Marcus.

91 The modern Pedeles or Delys, according to Ortellius and Mannert, Tedles according to D'Anville.

92 The modern Jigeli or Gigeri. It was probably in ancient times the emporium of the surrounding country.

93 Destroyed, according to Hardouin, and probably by the incursions of the sea. At the mouth of the Ampsaga (now called the Wad-El-Kebir or Sufjimar, and higher up the Wadi Roumel) there is situate a small sea-port called Marsa Zeitoun.

94 Near the present Mazuaa, according to Mannert.

95 The modern Burgh, according to D'Anville and Mannert, but more probably considerably to the east of that place.

96 The modern El-Herba, according to Mannert.

97 Marcus suggests that this is the Chinalaph of Ptolemy, and probably the modern Schellif.

98 The same that is called Savis by Ptolemy, who places Icosium on its banks.

99 By Mela called the Vabar. Marcus supposes it to be the same as the modern Giffer.

100 By Ptolemy called the Sisar; the Ajebbi of modern geographers, which falls into the Mediterranean, near the city of Budja.

101 Brotier says that this reading is incorrect, and that 222 is the proper one, that being the true distance between the river Ampsaga or Wadel-Kebir and the city of Cæsarea, the modern Zershell.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
42 AD (1)
40 AD (1)
570 BC (1)
480 BC (1)
hide References (40 total)
  • Commentary references to this page (1):
    • Charles Simmons, The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Books XIII and XIV, 13.618
  • Cross-references to this page (35):
    • The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, BAELO (Bolonia) Cáidiz, Spain.
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), AMPELU´SIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ATLAS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), AUTO´LOLES
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), BA´NASA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), BELON
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), DA´RADAE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), DARADUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), DARAE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GAETU´LIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GUMI´GI
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LI´BYA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LI´BYCUM MARE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MAURETA´NIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), NIGEIR
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), NOSALE´NE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), NUIUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), NUMI´DIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), OPPIDUM NOVUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PHTHUTH
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RUSUCU´RRIUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SALA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SALDAE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SEPTEM FRATRES
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), STACHIR
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SUBUR
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SY´RIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), THAMNA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TINGIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), VOLUBILIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ZILIA
    • Smith's Bio, Hanno
    • Smith's Bio, Juba
    • Smith's Bio, Corne'lius Nepos
    • Smith's Bio, Pauli'nus, C. Sueto'nius
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (4):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: