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1 The present Cadiz. It was originally a Phœnician colony.
2 Now Cordova.
3 Now Ecija.
4 Now Seville.
5 The Roman colonies or colonies "civium Romanorum" are those here meant. The colonists in such case enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizens, the town in which they lived being founded under the supervision of the Roman magistracy.
6 "Municipia." These were towns in conquered countries which were not founded by the Romans, but whose inhabitants retained their original institutions, at the same time receiving certain of the rights of Roman citizens; most frequently, immunity to a greater or less degree from payment of tribute.
7 "Latium ;" also called "Jus Latii" and "Latinitas." This was the name given to those circumscribed or limited rights as Roman citizens which were at first bestowed upon the conquered states of Italy, before the time of the Social War. Indeed the Latinus held a kind of intermediate state between the Civis Romanus with all his rights, and the peregrinus or foreigner with all his disabilities. These Latin rights were afterwards extended to the people of other countries, but retained their original name.
8 The free towns were those, the inhabitants of which were at liberty to enjoy their ancient institutions and modes of internal government, though at the same time they enjoyed none of the privileges of Roman citizens.
9 "Fœderati civitates ;" the inhabitants of which were called 'federati' or 'socii.' They were in alliance with the Romans, but in some cases paid them tribute in the same manner as the 'stipendiaria' next mentioned. In some instances they also enjoyed the Latin rights.
10 From the numerous creeks or estuaries with which the coast is here indented. Commentators are at a loss for the site of the town of Onoba (or Ossonoba according to some readings). D'Anville considers it to be the same with the present town of Moguer; other commentators have suggested Gibraleon, and the vicinity of Palos.
11 The Odiel and the Tinto; the Urium being supposed to be the same with the Tinto of the present day.
12 Some readings have "Hareni montes," and others "Arenæ montes," the "mountains of sand." There is no doubt that the sandy heights or downs on this coast are here meant, which are called at the present day "Dunes" by the French, and by the natives "Arenas gordas."
13 Probably the line of sea-shore between Roia and the city of Cadiz, skirting the Bay of Cadiz. Hardouin however thinks that the coast between the Guadalquivir and the Guadalete is meant, now occupied in part by the town of San Lucar de Barameda.
14 In the Fourth Book, c. 36.
15 The present Cape Trafalgar.
16 Hardouin says that the present Vejer is the place meant, while others have suggested Puerto de Santa Maria, or Cantillana. Others again identify it with Bejer de la Frontera, though that place probably lies too far inland. The Roman ruins near Porto Barbato were probably its site.
17 Hardouin and other commentators suggest that the site of the present Tarifa is here meant; it is more probable however that D'Anville is right in suggesting the now deserted town of Bolonia.
18 Probably the present Tarifa.
19 The exact site of Carteia is unknown; but it is generally supposed to have stood upon the bay which opens out of the straits on the west of the Rock of Gibraltar, now called the Bay of Algesiras or Gibraltar; and upon the hill at the head of the bay of El Rocadillo, about half-way between Algesiras and Gibraltar.
20 We learn also from Strabo, that Tartessus was the same place as Carteia; it is not improbable that the former was pretty nearly the Phoenician name of the place, and the latter a Roman corruption of it, and that in it originated the 'Tarshish' of Scripture, an appellation apparently given to the whole of the southern part of the Spanish peninsula. Probably the Greeks preserved the appellation of the place more in conformity with the original Phoenician name.
21 By the "inland sea" Pliny means the Mediterranean, in contradistinction to the Atlantic Ocean without the Straits of Cadiz.
22 The ruins of this place, probably, are still to be seen on the east bank of the river Guadiaro, here alluded to.
23 With its river flowing by it. This place is probably the present Marbella, situate on the Rio Verde.
24 Probably the present Castillo de Torremolinos, or else Castillo de Fuengirola.
25 The present city of Malaga. Hardouin thinks that the river Guadalquivirejo is here meant, but as that is some miles distant from the city, it is more probable that the Guadalmedina, which is much nearer to it, is the stream alluded to.
26 Not improbably Velez Malaga, upon a river of the same name. Hardouin thinks that the place is the modern Torrox on the Fiu Frio, and D'Anville the present city of Almunecar, on the Rio Verde.
27 Most probably the present Almunecar, but it is uncertain. D'Anville says the present Torre de Banas; others have suggested the town of Motril.
28 Now Salobrena.
29 Either the present Adra or Abdera: it is uncertain which.
30 Probably the present Mujacar. D'Anville suggests Almeria.
31 Also called Bastitani, a mixed race, partly Iberian and partly Phœnician.
33 Plutarch, quoting from the Twelfth Book of the Iberica of Sosthenes, tells us that, "After Bacchus had conquered Iberia [the present Spain], he left Pan to act as his deputy, and he changed its name and called the country Pania, after himself, which afterwards became corrupted into Spania."
34 He alludes to the expedition of Hercules into Spain, of which Diodorus Siculus makes mention; also his courtship of the nymph Pyrene, the daughter of Bebryx, who was buried by him on the Pyrenæan mountains, which thence derived their name.
35 It is unknown where this town was situate; Hardouin and D'Anville think it was on the site of the present village of San Thome, once an episcopal see, now removed to Jaen. The people of Mentisa, mentioned in c. 4, were probably inhabitants of a different place. D'Anville in his map has two Mentisas, one 'Oretana,' the other 'Bastitana.
36 According to D'Anville, the place now called Toia.
37 Now the Segura.
38 'Nova' or 'New' Carthage, so called from having been originally founded by a colony of Carthaginians B.C. 242. It was situate a little to the west of the Saturni Promontorium, or Promontory of Palos. It was taken by Scipio Africanus the elder B.C. 210.
39 The present Lorca.
40 This place is even now called by the inhabitants Sepulcro de Scipion. Cneius Cornelius Scipio Calvus, after the defeat of his brother P. Cornelius Scipio, in the year B.C. 211, by the forces of Asdrubal and Mago, fled to a tower at this spot, which was set fire to by the troops of Asdrubal, and he perished in the flames.
41 So called from the town of Ossigi afterwards mentioned.
42 It is unknown where this place stood; Medina Sidonia has been suggested.
43 Probably the present Fuentes del Rey, between Andujar and Jaen, according to Pinet.
44 D'Anville suggests that this is the present Arjona; but more probably it was the village of Arjonilla, two leagues south of Andujar. Gruter has an inscription found here, "MUNIC ALBENSE URGOANON."
45 There were five cities of this name in Spain. Hardouin thinks that this is the modern Alcala la Real, between Granada and Cordova.
46 Most probably the modern Sierra de Elvira, though some writers have suggested the city of Granada.
47 Probably near the modern Montilla. Hardouin takes it to be the present Granada.
48 Poinsinet thinks that this is the present Ecija, but other writers take it to be Alhama, between Granada and Malaga.
49 Perhaps the present Archidona. Some writers have suggested the modern Faventia and Velez.
50 Probably near the present Puente de Don Gonzalo, on the banks of the Rio Genil.
51 Probably near Aguilar on the river Cabra; or else the present Teba, between Osuna and Antequera.
52 Agla the Less.
53 Probably the present Cabra. The sites of the two preceding towns are not known.
54 "The Encampment in the Vineyards." Probably this was the same as the Castra Postumiana mentioned by Hirtius in his Book on the Spanish War as being four miles from Attegua. It appears to be the present Castro, or Castro el Rio, situate on the banks of the river Guadajoz.
55 In some readings "Episibrium." Probably the present Espeja.
56 Its present site is unknown.
57 According to D'Anville, the present Puente de Pinos, six leagues north of Granada. Others take it to be Illora, south of Alcala la Real.
58 The present Huesca, according to Hardouin; more probably, however, Huector, on the banks of the river Genil.
59 Perhaps Escusar, five leagues from Granada. But according to some it is the same as Truelo or Eruelo.
60 Called Ucubis by Hirtius. Morales suggests that it is Sierra la Ronda, but Pinet says Stoponda.
61 The sites of this and the preceding place are unknown.
62 In relation to the 'conventus juridicus,' we may here observe that under the Roman sway, in order to facilitate the administration of justice, a province was divided into a number of districts or circuits, each of which was so called, as also 'forum' or 'jurisdictio.' At certain times of the year fixed by the proconsul or chief magistrate, the people assembled in the chief town of the district (whence the name 'conventus'), upon which judges were selected to try the causes of litigant parties.
63 Probably near the town at the present day called Espelui. Strabo, in Book iii., tells us that Laconian institutions and customs were prevalent in some parts of Spain.
64 This place was ravaged by fire and levelled with the ground by the troops of Scipio, in consequence of the vigorous defence they had made, and the losses they had caused to the Roman army. It probably stood about four miles from the present city of Baeza.
65 The sites of this place and the next are unknown.
66 Most probably the present town of Porcuna. Ubeda or Ubedos has also been suggested.
67 The present town of Montoro.
68 Now Alcoorrucen, near Perabad.
69 Ansart suggests that the reading is not Sacili of the Martiales, but Onoba of the Martiales, to distinguish it from Onoba Æstuaria, previously mentioned. It is not improbable that the place was so called from the Martian or Martial legion having originally colonized it. The site of Onoba is unknown.
70 Cordova was so called from the great number of patricians, who were among the original colonists, when it was founded by Marcellus. To the present day it is noted for the pride of its nobles. The Great Captain Gonzalo de Cordova used to say, that "other towns might be better to live in, but there was none better to be born in." It was the birth-place of Lucan and the two Senecas.
71 The site of these two places is unknown at the present day.
72 Now called by the similar name of Genil or Xenil.
73 Perhaps the present Alcolea.
74 Perhaps the Cantillana of the present day: there is, however, the greatest uncertainty as to the sites of these places.
75 According to Hardouin, the modern city of Penaflor: D'Anville places it about two leagues thence, and near the city of Lora.
76 Now Sevilla la Vieja, or Old Seville; called by the lower classes Santi-pone.
77 Now Seville. This colony was founded by Julius Cæsar, and also bore the name of Julia Romula.
78 Or north side of the river.
79 Probably on the site of the present Alcala del Rio.
80 'The [good] genius of Julius,' probably meaning Cæsar. Nothing seems to be known of its site.
81 Caura may be the present Coria, a town three leagues from Seville.
82 Probably the Rio Guadalete.
83 Either the present Sebrija, or in the vicinity of the city of San Lucar.
84 Probably the present Bonania.
85 Probably between Trebujena and the city of Xeres. It was the usual place of meeting for the people of the territory of Gades; and its importance may be judged from its appellation 'Regia' or 'royal,' and its numerous coins. Its ruins are still to be seen on a hill there.
86 It is not improbable that this was the present city of Xeres. Some geographers however take it to be that of Medina Sidonia, and look upon Xeres as the site of the ancient Asta.
87 Now Ecija. It stood on the plain of the Bætis, some distance south of the river, on its tributary the Singulis or Xenil.
88 The site of this place is unknown. It probably obtained its name from being a colony of one of the legions, the 7th, 10th, 13th or 14th; which were called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' from being composed of the men of two legions originally.
89 "The Valour of Julius." Sanson places it not far from Miragenil.
90 "The Fame of Julius." Perhaps the present Olivera, or else Teba, six leagues to the south of Estepa.
91 The present city of Ossuna. "Genua Urbanorum" would seem to mean "the knees of the citizens." Though all the MSS. agree in this reading, it probably is an error for "gemina Urbanorum," and it may have been a colony of one of the legions called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' as previously mentioned. The other part of its appellation may possibly have originated in the fact of its first inhabitants being all natives of the city of Rome.
92 The use of the word fuit, 'was,' implies that the place had been destroyed. Cneius Pompeius, the eldest son of Pompey the Great, was defeated at Munda, in the year B.C. 45, and the town destroyed. Pompey escaped from the battle, but was taken a short time after and put to death. The site of the ancient town is very generally supposed to be the modern village of Monda, S.W. of Malaga, and about three leagues from the sea. It is more probable however that it was in the vicinity of Cordova, and there are ruins of ancient walls and towers between Martos, Alcandete, Espejo and Baena, which are supposed to denote its site.
93 Now Alameda; eight leagues from the other Astiji or Ecija.
94 Now Estepa, six leagues from Ecija.
95 Perhaps Mancloua, between the towns of Ecija and Carmona; the sites of all the other places here mentioned appear to be quite unknown.
96 Sanson supposes the Alostigi to have inhabited the territory near Almagia, between Malaga and Antiqueira.
97 The Celtici are supposed to have inhabited the country between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir, the eastern parts of Alentejo and the west of Estremadura, as far as the city of Badajoz.
98 Probably part of Estremadura, and the vicinity of Badajoz in an easterly direction.
99 The exact meaning of this passage is somewhat obscure, but he probably means to say that the Celtici have an identity of sacred rites, language, and names of towns with the Celtiberians; though it had become the usage in Bætica more generally to distinguish the towns by their Roman names.
100 "The Fame of Julius." Its site is not known.
101 "The Concord of Julius." Probably the same as the modern Valera la Vega, near Frejenal.
102 Probably meaning "Restored by Julius." Nothing is known of its site.
103 According to an authority quoted by Hardouin, this may possibly be Medina de las Torres.
104 Probably Constantina in Andalusia, to the north of Penaflor.
105 The tribe or nation of the Tereses are supposed to have dwelt in the vicinity of the modern San Nicolo del Puerto.
106 Calentum was their town; probably the present Cazalla near Alaniz. This place will be found mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 14.
107 The ruins two leagues north of Ronda la Vieja are supposed to be those of this place. There are the remains of an aqueduct and theatre, and numerous coins are found here.
108 Probably the present Ronda la Vieja.
109 Identified by inscriptions with the present Aroche. The sites of several of the following places are unknown.
110 The Azuaga of modern times; but, according to Hardouin, Argallen.
111 According to Hardouin this was on the site of the modern Fuente de la Ovejuna, fourteen leagues from Cordova.
112 This has been identified by inscriptions with the modern Villa de Capilla.
113 According to Hardouin, the modern Almaden de la Plata.
114 Probably the same as the modern Monte Major.
115 The ruins of this place are probably those seen at Carixa, near Bornos, in the vicinity of Seville.
116 According to Hardouin, the same as the modern Las Cabezas, not far from Lebrija.
117 The sites of these two towns are unknown. Bæsippo, Barbesula and Callet have been already mentioned.
118 The ruins of Saguntia are to be seen between Arcos and Xeres della Frontera, on the river Guadalete; they bear their ancient name under the form of Cigonza. Mela, B. iii. c. 1, says that Oleastro was a grove near the Bay of Cadiz. Brana was probably the same place that is mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Urbona.
119 We may here mention for the more correct information of the reader that the Roman mile consisted of 1000 paces, each pace being five English feet. Hence its length was 1618 English yards (taking the Roman foot at 11ċ6496 English inches), or 142 yards less than the English statute mile.
120 Nova Carthago, or New Carthage.
121 Now Cazlona, on the confines of New Castile and the kingdom of Granada. It was a place of great importance, and the chief town of the Oretani. Himilce, the rich wife of Hannibal, was a native of this place.
122 This was the 'porticus Octaviæ,' which, having been commenced by his sister Octavia, the wife of Marcellus and Antony, was completed by Augustus. It lay between the Circus Flaminius and the Theatre of Marcellus, occupying the site of the former portico, which had been built by Q. Cæcilius Metellus, and enclosing the two temples of Juno and of Jupiter Stator. It contained a public library, in which the Senate often met, and it was in this probably that the map or plan, mentioned by Pliny, was deposited. It also contained a great number of statues, paintings, and other works of art, which, with the library, were destroyed by fire in the reign of Titus.
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