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390. In present or past conditions, the question of fulfilment has already been decided, but we may or may not wish to imply by our form of statement how this has been decided. In Greek (as in English or Latin) we may, therefore, state such a condition in either of two ways:—

1. We may simply state a present or past condition, implying nothing as to its fulfilment; as if he is (nowdoing this, εἰ τοῦτο πράσσει,—if he was doing it, εἰ ἔπρασσε,—if he did it, εἰ ἔπραξε, —if he has (already) done it, εἰ πέπραχε,—if he had (already) done it (at some past time), εἰ ἐπεπράχει. The apodosis here expresses simply what is (was or will be) the result of the fulfilment of the condition. Thus we may say:—

Εἰ πράσσει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he is doing this, it is well; εἰ πράσσει τοῦτο, ἡμάρτηκεν, if he is doing this, he has erred; εἰ πράσσει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἕξει, if he is doing this, it will be well. Εἰ ἔπραξε (or ἔπρασσε) τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει (εἶχεν, ἔσχεν, or ἕξει), if he did this, it is (was or will be) well. Εἰ πέπραχε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἕξει, if he has done this, it will be well. So with the other tenses of the indicative in the apodosis. (See 402.)

So in Latin: Si hoc facit, bene est; Si hoc fecit, bene erit; etc.

2. On the other hand, we may state a present or past condition so as to imply that it is not or was not fulfilled; as if he were (nowdoing this, εἰ τοῦτο ἔπρασσε;—if he had done this, εἰ τοῦτο ἔπραξε (both implying the opposite). The apodosis here expresses what would be (or would have been) the result if the condition were (or had been) fulfilled. The adverb ἄν in the apodosis distinguishes these forms from otherwise similar forms under (a) 1. Thus we may say:—

Εἰ ἔπρασσε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν, if he were (now) doing this, it would be well; or if he had been doing this, it would have been well.

Εἰ ἔπραξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν (or ἂν εἶχεν), if he had done this, it would have been well (or it would now be well). On the other hand, εἰ ἔπραξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔσχεν (without ἄν) would mean if he did this, it was well. (See 410.)

In Latin: Si hoc faceret, bene esset (present); Si hoc fecisset, bene fuisset (past).

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