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45. The perfect and the pluperfect may be expressed by the perfect participle with the present and imperfect of εἰμί. Here, however, each part of the compound generally retains its own signification, so that this form expresses more fully the continuance of the result of the action of the perfect to the present time, and of that of the pluperfect to the past time referred to. E.g. In DEM. xviii. 23, οὔτε γὰρ ἦν πρεσβεία πρὸς οὐδένα ἀπεσταλμένη τότε τῶν Ἑλλήνων means for there was no embassy then out on a mission to any of the Greeks; whereas ἀπέσταλτο would have given the meaning no embassy had ever been sent out (see 831).

This of course does not apply to cases where the compound form is the only one in use, as in the third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect passive and middle of mute and liquid verbs.

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    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 23
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