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582. A consecutive clause expresses a consequence, that is, the effect or result (actual or potential) of something that is stated in the leading clause. Such a clause is introduced by some relative word, generally by ὥστε, so as, so that. (See 575.) The consequence may be either one which the action of the leading verb aims at and tends to produce, or one which that action actually does produce. This is the fundamental distinction between ὥστε with the infinitive (with μή for its negative) and ὥστε with the indicative (with οὐ for its negative). E.g. Πᾶν ποιοῦσιν ὥστε δίκην μὴ διδόναι, they do everything in such a way as (i.e. so as) not to suffer punishment, i.e. they aim, in all they do, at not being punished; it is not, however, implied that they actually escape. PLAT. Gorg. 479 C. On the other hand, πᾶν ποιοῦσιν ὥστε δίκην οὐ διδόασιν would mean they do everything in such a way that (i.e. so that) they are not punished.

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    • William Watson Goodwin, Commentary on Demosthenes: On the Crown, 33
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