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580. The relative may have a causal signification, being equivalent to ὅτι, because, and a personal pronoun or demonstrative word. The verb is generally in the indicative, as in ordinary causal sentences (713); but it may be in the potential optative or potential indicative. The negative is οὐ; but when the relative clause is conditional as well as causal, the negative is μή. E.g. Θαυμαστὸν ποιεῖς, ὃς ἡμῖν οὐδὲν δίδως, you do a strange thing in giving us nothing (like ὅτι σὺ οὐδὲν δίδως). XEN. Mem. ii. 7, 13. Δόξας ἀμαθέα εἶναι, ὃς . . . ἐκέλευε, believing him to be unlearned, because he commanded, etc. HDT. i. 33. Τὴν μητέρα (ἐμακάριζον), οἵων τέκνων ἐκύρησε (like ὅτι τοίων). Id. i. 31. Εὐδαίμων ἐφαίνετο, ὡς ἀδεῶς καὶ γενναίως ἐτελεύτα, i.e. because he died so fearlessly and nobly (ὡς being equivalent to ὅτι οὕτως). PLAT. Phaed. 58E.

Ταλαίπωρος εἶ, μήτε θεοὶ πατρῷοί εἰσι μήθ᾽ ἱερά, you are wretched, since you have no ancestral Gods (if you really have none), etc. Euthyd. 302B. Πῶς ἂν ὀρθῶς ἐμοῦ καταγιγνώσκοιτε, τὸ παράπαν πρὸς τουτονὶ μηδὲν συμβόλαιόν ἐστιν; i.e. since I have no contract at all with this man (or if I have no contract). DEM. xxxiii. 34. Ὅπου τοίνυν μηδεὶς τετόλμηκε τῶν οἰκείων τούτῳ μαρτυρῆσαι, πῶς οὐκ εἰκός ἐστιν ὑμᾶς ἡγεῖσθαί με τἀληθῆ λέγειν; whereas then (or if then) no one has dared, etc. xlId. ix. 38.So lv. 26. Ὁπότε αἱ μὲν ἐξ ἀρχῆς συνθῆκαι ἠφανίσθησαν ἕτεραι δὲ μὴ ἐγράφησαν, πῶς ὀρθῶς ἂν ἐμοὶ δικάζοιτο, καθ᾽ οὗ μὴ ἔχει παρασχέσθαι συνθήκας; whereas the original agreement disappeared and the other was never written, how can he justly go to law with me, when (or if) he cannot bring forward any agreement against me? Id. xxxiii. 30.So SOPH. OT 817 , SOPH. O.T. 1335, O. C. 1680, Ant. 696, Ph. 178, Ph. 255; AR. Ran. 1459; HDT. i. 71 (τοῖσί γε μή ἐστι μηδέν); THUC. iv. 126 (οἵ γε μηδὲ . . . ἥκετε). The potential imperfect occurs in ANT. v. 66, μὴ τοίνυν ἐμοὶ νείμητε τὸ ἄπορον τοῦτο, ἐν μηδ᾽ ἂν αὐτοὶ εὐπορεῖτε, do not then bring upon me this perplexity, in which you yourselves would not know what to do (half causal, half conditional).

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