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94. The present and aorist optative in independent sentences (in wishes and with ἄν), and in all conditional sentences except past general conditions (462; 532), express future time, the relation of which to the future expressed by other moods is explained in 12, 13, and 16. (Some Homeric present or past unreal conditions and present wishes are exceptions: see 438-441.) In all final constructions the optative (which is used only after past tenses) represents the subjunctive after primary tenses, and is future relatively to the leading verb. E.g. Εἴθε τοῦτο εἴη (utinam sit), O that this may be. Εἴθε μὴ ταῦτα πάσχοιεν, may they not suffer these things (with a view to the progress of their suffering). But εἴθε μὴ ταῦτα πάθοιεν, may they not suffer these things (viewed collectively). “Εἴθε σὺ τοιοῦτος ὢν φίλος ἡμῖν γένοιο,” “may you become a friend to us.” XEN. Hell. iv. 1, 38 Μὴ γένοιτο, may it not happen. See examples of the optative with ἄν below.

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