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252. Accent.—Stems of one syllable accent the case ending in the genitive and dative of all numbers; and -ων and -οιν take the circumflex accent. Thus, φλέψ vein, φλεβ-ός, φλεβ-ῶν; θήρ wild beast, θηρ-ός, θηρ-οῖν, θηρ-ῶν; θρίξ hair, τριχ-ός, τριχ-ῶν.

a. Exceptions. The ending of the gen. dual and pl. is not accented in the case of , παῖς boy, girl, δμώς slave, θώς jackal, Τρώς Trojan, δᾴς torch, τὸ φῶς light, τὸ οὖς ear. Thus, παίδων (but παισί), Τρώων, ὤτων, etc. So ὤν being, ὄντων (305).

b. A trisyllabic form, if contracted, does not show the accent on the case ending: ἦρ-ος for ἔαρ-ος, ἦρ-ι for ἔαρ-ι, from τὸ ἔαρ spring.

253. Variation of Stem Formation.—Many words of the third declension show traces of an original variation of stem that is due to the influence of a shifting accent which is seen in some of the cognate languages. In Greek this variation has often been obscured by the analogy of other forms. Thus πατέρων, in comparison with Hom. πατρῶν, Lat. patrum, gets its ε from πατέρες.

a. Variation of stem is seen in ων, ον (259); ηρ, ερ, ρα (262); ης, εσ- (264); in stems in ι, ει (270); υ, ευ (270); ευ, ηυ (278); οι, ω (279), etc. Words in ων, ην show a middle form ον, εν, and a weak form in ν (250 N.).

b. Several words ending in ρ show a parallel stem in τ; thus, ὕδωρ water ὕδατ-ος, ἧπαρ liver ἥπατ-ος, φρέα_ρ tank φρέα_τ-ος (but poet. δάμα_ρ wife δάμαρτ-ος). The reason for this change is uncertain, but ατ is derived from ντ after a consonant (35 b): ὑδντος, ἡπντος, cp. Lat. jecinoris, nom. jecur. ἧπαρ is probably derived from ἡπαρτ (133).

c. -ατος was transferred from such genitives as ὀνόματος, ἥπατος to other neuter words: γόνατος from γόνυ knee, instead of γονϝ-ος, whence Hom. γουνός. φῶς light, for φάος (stem φαεσ-), has taken on the τ inflection (φωτ-ός, etc.).

d. Neuter stems in -ες show -ος in the nominative. Cp. ἔτος year (stem ἐτεσ-) with Lat. vetus, veter-is (for vetes-is).

254. Variation of Quantity.—a. In poetry the quantity of ι in words in -ις may differ from that of prose; as in tragedy ὄρνι^ς bird, κόνι_ς dust, ὄφι_ς serpent (in prose ὄρνι_ς, κόνι^ς, ὄφι^ς); so in Pind. ἰχθυ?́ς (prose ἰχθύ_ς) fish.

b. κῆρυ^ξ herald, Φοῖνι^ξ Phoenician, μάστι^ξ whip have long υ and ι in the oblique cases except the dat. pl. (κήρυ_κος, Φοίνι_κι, μάστι_γα, etc.). ἀλώπηξ fox has ε in the gen. ἀλώπεκος, etc., by analogy to such words as ποιμήν, ποιμένος (ἀλωπήκων occurs in Ionic). πῦρ fire has πυ^ρός, πυ^ρί, etc. (285, 25).

255. Gender.—The gender of substantives of the third declension is frequently known by the last letters of the stem.

1. Masculine are stems ending in

a. ντ: ὀδούς tooth (ὀδοντ-), δράκων serpent (δρακοντ-).

b. ητ, ωτ: πένης day-labourer (πενητ-), γέλως laughter (γελωτ-).

Exceptions. Stems in -τητ (2, b): ἐσθής dress (ἐσθητ-), τὸ φῶς light (φωτ-).

c. ν: λειμών meadow (λειμον-).

Exceptions. Fem.: stems in γον, δον (2, a), and φρήν mind (φρεν-), ἴ_ς strength (ἰ_ν-), ῥί_ς nose (ῥι_ν-), ἀκτί_ς ray (ἀκτι_ν-), γλωχί_ς arrow-point (γλωχι_ν-), ὠδί_ς birth-pang (ὠδι_ν-), εἰκών image (εἰκον-), ἠϊών shore (ἠϊον-), χθών earth (χθόν-), χιών snow (χιον-), ἀλκυών halcyon (ἀλκυον-), etc., , χήν goose (χην-).

d. ρ: θήρ wild beast (θηρ-), φώρ thief (φωρ-).

Exceptions. Fem.: χείρ hand (χερ-), κήρ fate (κηρ-), γαστήρ belly (γαστερ-); neut.: stems in αρ (3, a), πῦρ fire (πυρ-), and the indeclinable πέλωρ monster, τέκμωρ (Hom) token, etc.

e. ευ: γονεύς parent, φονεύς murderer.

2. Feminine are stems ending in

a. γον, δον: σταγών drop (σταγον-), χελι_δών swallow (χελι_δον-).

b. τητ, δ, θ: κακότης baseness (κακοτητ-), ἔρις strife (ἐριδ-), ἐλπίς hope (ἐλπιδ-).

Exceptions. Masc.: πούς foot (ποδ-), , ὄρνι_ς bird (ὀρνι_θ-).

c. ι, υ with nom. in -ις, -υς: πόλι-ς city, ἰσχύ_-ς strength.

Exceptions. Masc.: ὄφι-ς serpent, ἔχι-ς viper, ὄρχι-ς testicle; βότρυ-ς cluster of grapes, ἰχθύ_-ς fish, μῦ-ς mouse, νέκυ-ς corpse, στάχυ-ς ear of corn, πέλεκυ-ς axe, πῆχυ-ς fore-arm; and , σῦ-ς or ὗ-ς swine.

d. οι: ἠχώ echo, πειθώ pèrsuasion.

3. Neuter are stems ending in

a. ατ, αρ: πρᾶγμα thing (πρα_γματ-), νέκταρ nectar (νεκταρ-). But ψά_ρ starling.

b. ας, ες (with nom. in -ος): κρέας flesh (κρεασ-), γενος race (γενεσ-).

c. ι, υ with nom. in -ι, -υ: σίνα_πι mustard, ἄστυ city.

N.—No stem ending in π, β, φ or κ, γ, χ is neuter.

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