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1283. The vocative is used in exclamations and in direct address: ““ Ζεῦ καὶ θεοίoh Zeus and ye godsP. Pr. 310d, ““ἄνθρωπεmy good fellowX. C. 2.2.7. The vocative forms an incomplete sentence (904 d).

a. The vocative is never followed immediately by δέ or γάρ.

1284. In ordinary conversation and public speeches, the polite is usually added. Without the vocative may express astonishment, joy, contempt, a threat, or a warning, etc. Thus ἀκούεις Αἰσχίνη; d'ye hear, Aeschines? D. 18.121. But this distinction is not always observed, though in general has a familiar tone which was unsuited to elevated poetry.

1285. The vocative is usually found in the interior of a sentence. At the beginning it is emphatic. In prose ἔφη, in poetry , may stand between the vocative and an attributive or between an attributive and the vocative; in poetry may be repeated for emphasis.

1286. In late poetry a predicate adjective may be attracted into the vocative: ὄλβιε κῶρε γένοιο blessed, oh boy, mayest thou be Theocr. 17. 66. Cp. Matutine pater seu Iane libentius audis Hor. S. 2. 6. 20.

1287. By the omission of σύ or ὑ_μεῖς the nominative with the article may stand in apposition to a vocative: ἄνδοες οἱ παρόντες you, gentlemen, who are present P. Pr. 337c, ““ Κῦρε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ΠέρσαιCyrus and the rest of you PersiansX. C. 3.3.20; and in apposition to the pronoun in the verb: παῖς, ἀκολούθει boy, attend me Ar. Ran. 521.

1288. The nominative may be used in exclamations as a predicate with the subject unexpressed: ““ πικρὸς θεοῖςoh loathed of heavenS. Ph. 254, ““φίλος Μενέλα_εah dear MenelausΔ 189; and connected with the vocative by and: ““ πόλις καὶ δῆμεoh city and peopleAr. Eq. 273. In exclamations about a person: ““ γενναῖοςoh the noble manP. Phae. 227c.

a. οὗτος is regular in address: οὗτος, τί πάσχεις, Ξανθία_; ho there, I say, Xanthias, what is the matter with you? Ar. Vesp. 1; οὗτος, Αἴα_ς ho there, I say, Ajax S. Aj. 89.

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