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1690. κατά down (cp. κάτω), opposed to ἀνά. With the genitive (the genitive proper (of the goal) and the ablatival genitive) and the accusative. With the genitive, the motion is perpendicular; with the accusative, horizontal.

1. κατά with the Genitive

a. Local: down from, down toward, under: ““ἁλάμενοι κατὰ τῆς πέτρα_ςhaving leapt down from the rockX. A. 4.2.17, κατ᾽ ἄκρα_ς utterly, completely (down from the summit) P. L. 909b, ““ψυ_χὴ κατὰ χθονὸς ᾤχετοhis soul went down under the earthΨ 100, μύρον κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες having poured myrrh (down) over their heads P. R. 398a; rarely of rest: ““ κατὰ γῆςthe man under the earthX. C. 4.6.5.

b. Temporal (very rare): κατὰ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος for all eternity Lyc. 7.

c. Other relations: against, as ““κατ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐρεῖνto speak against myselfP. A. 37b; rarely in a favourable or neutral sense, as ““οἱ κατὰ Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοιthe eulogies on DemosthenesAes. 3.50, ““κατὰ πάντων λέγεινto speak with regard to allX. C. 1.2.16; by (with verbs of swearing), as ὀμνύντων τὸν ὅρκον κατὰ ἱερῶν τελείων let them swear the oath by (lit. down over) fullgrown victims T. 5.47.

2. κατά with the Accusative

a. Local: ““ἔπλεον κατὰ ποταμόνthey sailed down-streamHdt. 4.44, ““κατὰ τὰ_ς εἰσόδους ἐφεπόμενοιfollowing to the entrancesX. C. 3.3.64. Extension: καθ᾽ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν throughout the entire city Lyc. 40, ““κατὰ γῆνby landL. 2.32, ““διώκοντες τοὺς καθ᾽ αὑτούςpursuing those stationed opposite themselvesX. A. 1.10.4.

b. Temporal (post-Homeric): ““κατὰ πλοῦνduring the voyageT. 3.32, κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον at that time 1. 139, ““οἱ καθ᾽ ἑαυτόνhis contemporariesD. 20.73.

c. Other relations: Purpose: ““κατὰ θέα_ν ἧκενcame for the purpose of seeingT. 6.31. Conformity: ““κατὰ τούτους ῥήτωρan orator after their styleP. A. 17b, ““κατὰ τοὺς νόμουςaccording to the lawsD. 8.2. Ground on which an act is based: ““κατὰ φιλία_νowing to friendshipT. 1.60. Comparisons: μείζω κατὰ δάκρυα πεπονθότες having endured sufferings too great for (than according to) tears 7. 75 (cp. maior quam pro). Manner: ““καθ᾽ ἡσυχία_νquietlyT. 6.64. Distribution: ““κατ᾽ ἔθνηnation by nationT. 1.122, ““δέκα δραχμαὶ κατ᾽ ἄνδραten drachmae the manAes. 3.187, ““κατὰ σφᾶς αὐτούςper seT. 1.79. Approximate numbers: ““κατὰ πεντήκονταabout fiftyHdt. 6.79.

3. κατά in Composition

Down from above (καταπί_πτειν fall down), back (καταλείπειν leave behind), against, adversely (καταγιγνώσκειν condemn, decide against, καταφρονεῖν despise), completely (καταπετροῦν stone to death, κατεσθίειν eat up), often with an intensive force that cannot be translated. An intransitive verb when compounded with κατά may become transitive (1559).

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