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574. The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive is the reduplicated verb-stem, to which the personal endings are directly attached. λέλυ-μαι I have loosed myself or have been loosed, ἐ-λελύ-μην; δέδο-μαι (δί-δω-μι give), δέδειγ-μαι (δείκ-νυ_-μι show). On the euphonic changes of consonants, see 409.

574 D. A thematic vowel precedes the ending in Hom. μέμβλεται (μέλω care for), ὀρώρεται (ο᾽̓ρνυμι rouse).

575. The stem of the perfect middle is in general the same as that of the first perfect active as regards its vowel (557), the retention or expulsion of ν (559 a), and metathesis (559 d).

τι_μά-ω honour τετί_μη-μαι ἐτετι_μήμην; ποιέ-ω make πεποίη-μαι ἐπεποιήμην; γράφ-ω write γέγραμ-μαι; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge κέκρι-μαι; τείνω (τεν-) stretch τέταμαι; φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt ἔφθαρ-μαι; βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβλη-μαι ἐβεβλήμην; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεισμαι ἐπεπείσμην.

576. The vowel of the perfect middle stem should show the weak form when there is variation between ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ). The weak form in α appears regularly in verbs containing a liquid (479): that in υ, in πέπυσμαι from πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) learn, poet. ἔσσυμαι hasten from σεύω (συ-, σευ-) urge.

577. The vowel of the present has often displaced the weak form, as in πέπλεγμαι (πλέκ-ω weave), λέλειμμαι (λείπ-ω leave), πέπεισμαι (πείθ-ω persuade), ἔζευγμαι (ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke).

578. A final short vowel of the verb-stem is not lengthened in the verbs given in 488 a. ε is added (485) in many verbs. For metathesis see 492; for Attic reduplication see 446.

579. ν is retained in endings not beginning with μ, as φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφανται, πέφανθε. Before -μαι, we have μ in ὤξυμμαι from ὀξύ_νω (ὀξυν-) sharpen, but usually ν is replaced by ς. On the insertion of ς, see 489.

580. Future Perfect.—The stem of the future perfect is formed by adding -σόε- to the stem of the perfect middle. A vowel immediately preceding -σόε- is always long, though it may have been short in the perfect middle.

λύ_-ω loose, λελύ_-σομαι I shall have been loosed (perf. mid. λέλυ^-μαι), δέ-ω bind δεδή-σομαι (perf. mid. δέδε-μαι), γράφ-ω write γεγράψ-ομαι, καλέω call κεκλήσομαι.

580 D. Hom. has δεδέξουαι, μεμνήσομαι, κεκλήσῃ, κεχολώσεται; κεκαδήσομαι, πεφιδήσεται are from reduplicated aorists.

581. The future perfect usually has a passive force. The active meaning is found where the perfect middle or active has an active meaning (1946, 1947).

κεκτήσομαι shall possess (κέκτημαι possess), κεκρά_ξομαι shall cry out (κέκρα_γα cry out), κεκλάγξομαι shall scream (κέκλαγγα scream), μεμνήσομαι shall remember (μέμνημαι remember), πεπαύσομαι shall have ceased (πέπαυμαι have ceased).

582. Not all verbs can form a future perfect; and few forms of this tense occur outside of the indicative: διαπεπολεμησόμενον Thuc. 7. 25 is the only sure example of the participle in classical Greek. The infinitive μεμνήσεσθαι occurs in Hom. and Attic prose.

583. The periphrastic construction (601) of the perfect middle (passive) participle with ἔσομαι may be used for the future perfect, as ἐψευσμένος ἔσομαι I shall have been deceived.

584. Future Perfect Active.—The future perfect active of most verbs is formed periphrastically (600). Two perfects with a present meaning, ἕστηκα I stand (ἵστημι set) and τέθνηκα I am dead (θνῄσκω), form the future perfects ἑστήξω I shall stand, τεθνήξω I shall be dead.

584 D. Hom. has κεχαρήσω and κεχαρήσομαι from χαίρω (χαρ-) rejoice.

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