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2830. γοῦν (postpositive; first in Aeschylus) is a restrictive particle from γέ ¨ οὖν. Its meaning varies according to the prominence of the γέ or οὖν; often certainly, at any rate (at all events, at least). γοῦν commonly confirms a previous general assertion by giving a special instance of its truth (the special instance may be a seeming exception). γοῦν is thus used in bringing forward a reason, which, while not absolutely conclusive, is the most probable explanation of a previous statement.

““ἔτι γὰρ οὗτοι κακί_ονές εἰσι τῶν ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν ἡττημένων: ἔφευγον γοῦν πρὸς ἐκείνους καταλιπόντες ἡμᾶςfor they are even more cowardly than those who were beaten by us. At any rate they deserted us and sought refuge with themX. A. 3.2.17.

2831. γοῦν may emphasize a pronoun; as πρὸς γοῦν ἐμοῦ S. Aj. 527, τὰ γοῦν σά S. El. 1499.

2832. In answers γοῦν means well, at least; yes certainly; as εἰκὸς γοῦν X. C. 5.3.14.

2833. γοῦν finds the proof of an assertion in one of several possible facts or occurrences; γάρ gives the reason in general, but gives no particular instance; δ᾽ οὖν has an adversative force: ‘be that as it may, yet at any rate.’

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